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ƒÌ¯¥‘Å ¸–Ö: ‚ÂÆ´±ò °ÁÝ ×Ìґì (1)
ƒÒ™ŽÆ ׀äò þ°‘íé ×Ìґì 
º¥ÒÅ Šòì: êÀ‘î›ã‘ŽÆ êØò —œÒڍè

 

1.1.1 ±Ì‘Ø¥¢ ¹°€î ×Ìґì Á Á ‹Ñ —µ¦Æ ×ÌÒ‘ì ‚Å. Ž.à 4000 ŸþÀÏ ‡î¿º¨Å ÀÍ µ‘ª¦Ö —°‘¥›Ž ƒòéãÚ ×ãѹ³è㠊ò鑐Å. ƒ¹° —µ¦Æ ×ÌґíêÖ , ‡´°€îþƑ ׀Æ ¹°€îè þ°‘òê ºÖþ×ì ׀Æ  ƒÒ™ŽÆ›ã‘ ÀÒѹ³ ƒòìÅ ÞƑ³ ºÒ ¶í, µÀ³ ‚ËÚ —º‘Ï㑍 ƒ€×þÆ €ÀŽòéî. ƒ€¥ œ›´³ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ ‘ÒÃÅ, °ò »ò ×¹° €¥¢ œ› ‘ÒÃÅ ƒ€¥¿ºª¥ 
‘Ò›þã. °í Ãò½ Ã°í œ›´ °Áâ ‡î™ Ï°´ °™ ŸþÀÏ ƒÒ™ŽÆ›äÖ, ±Ì‘Ø¥ ¹°€îÇò ºÒþ×ì þº‘™è …ÏבŽÆ ¶€Ò€Æ ºÌ™¿ ºÌ™™ ‘«Ò‘Å. ƒ×í€é—ÆÖґŠÃí鑍´ —°‘´³™ ‘®Å —º‘à³ › À¹±Ì‘Æ«´±Ö Ø㙍¿ºª¥×‘ì, ƒ€é×ò ‡Ü×‘ì ºÖþ×ì ±Ï؀ãƑ¥Ö€ã  µ¥´± °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€î€Æ ×ãÑ´³ › ×£‘îÅ —×俺ª¨ »Ì‘™À‘ì —œË³èã‘ò ‡òº€° êÆ Ã¦Žòé³. ƒÜ×‘ì êØïþÒ ‚¦, ×£‘îÅ Ÿ¥Ñ¹—°ÍÆ¢ —œË×þ° 
‚ÂƗÀî, ³ ‡Öґ ¹°€î ×ÌґíêÕÅ ‘« ×ÏÅ Šò—éî, °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇÖ ƒ³ ‡Ü×‘ì µ¥¹³èã³ ‡òº€° Ø㙐ŠÍ´°‘þî,±Ì‘Ø¥ —ÀËÆêÚ ×ÌÒ‘ì ‚ÂÆ´±ò °ÁÝ ×ÌÒ‘ì ‡ò鑎òé³. ƒ¹° ×Ìґí€é™ ˜ì°í ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ ¨´°¨´³ þ°‘òêÉè㠃ҙŽÆ ׀þ㠂°‘Ì¿ —º‘ÏæÀ‘Žòéî. 

1.1.2 €î´€°ÉÅ —°‘´³ ‹Ñ Ãàœ‘™ ‘®Å —º‘à³, ºÖþ×ì ¹°î‘þº‘™è ‡à°í™ ‘Ì«À‘, êÚ ºÖþ×ì ׀ÇÖ ƒà™¿ºª¨ —œ¿ºÅ —œËÆ¿ºª¨è〰™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. °ÁÝ ¹°€î ×Ìґíêò  é¿½ ›À‘ ƒÏ¿º³ 'ƒÆÓÆ ¸–ÓÆÅ' ‡òì(scientific hermeneutics) ˜é×ÏÅ ‹Ñ ÀéÇÆÖ ‡òº€°ÉÅ  êŽòþé‘Å. ƒ¹° ÀéÇƀÒþÆ Ã€éÇґ™ —‘¯¨ é¹³èã °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€î ƒ°î‘Ö, …ҍ  ×ÌґíêÖ ‹Ñ é¿»¥´€° »¦™Žòé³. —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÅ  ‡ñÅ ƒÒ™« ¸–Ö ƒ¹° ƒÆÓÆ ¸–ÓÆÅ  »€ÝƑ³ —œòé ‹Ñ ‚ËÚ ¸–Ö ‡òºþ°‘¨, »í‘Ò´±Ö ‡à¹° ˆ€îÆ ×ãÑ¢ªÅ ×Þ ‘ª¦Æ —ºÏ¸–Ö ‡òº³Å ‘«×ÏÅ ‹Ñ þºÏ¯€ÀƑÅ. 

1.1.3 ºÌ¹³ Ø͹³ ºÖґÇÌ ‚¯¨äò ×ãÑ¢€ã ‘ª¦ ¶íÅ ƒ¹° ƒÒ™ŽÆ›€ã™ ‘®Å þº‘³ ×íꙐ ‚°‘ÌÀ‘, ºÖþ×ì ׀Æ êØò —œÒÚè ƒÏ¿º€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ› ƒ¹° êØò —œÒڍþ㠁êÀ‘î›è ‡î¿ ºÌ¿º¨Žòéî. (ÀÑ-> À‘Ñ--> À‘ò --> À‘îÅ: €œ°Ö, —œÖÒÖ, ‘¯: À̽, ×ÌÚ, ÀÍ, À‘Í þº‘òé€×). ƒ×í€é ºÌ¢ —œÒÚè ‡òìÅ  ºÌ¢—œÒÚè ‡òìÅ º´³, þÀÕÅ ºÌ¢—œÒڍ€ã À‘îÅ, ½éÀ‘îÅ, âÀ‘îÅ ‡òìÅ ƒ×íꙐèþ㠃òñÅ ºÒ ׀Æ …ª»Íڍ€ãÉÅ ‘«Ò‘Å. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥  êÀ‘äò …¯€À™¢ œ‘ò鑍 µÀ™ °ÁÝ ƒÒ™ŽÆ ׀þã °™¢ œ‘òìã‘  ¶íŽòéî. 

1.2 þÀ퍫™ ¸–íè 

1.2.1 ê¿½™‘ÒÅ Ÿª¨™‘ÒÅ ‡î×ÏÅ ƒÏ׀ ‘ÒÚ«ÑØò ª¦Ö ¿ºª¨, íéêØî ×Ìґíì þº‘™Žò À̽ ×Þ¿ºª¨, …ÒŽÆÖ ƒòº›€ãþÆ —º‘Ï㑍 À±´³ ×í€éþÆ €¥¹³ ñºØ´³ ÀŽâ¹±¨Å ׀ÇÖ …ÇÍò …€Ý¿½™è ƒÏ™Å þº‘³, ‚Žòé êØò —œÒڍþ㠁ºÌÀ‘㑐Å. ƒÜ׀ êÚ …€Ý¿»ò —×俺‘¥‘ €ÀŽòé ƒÒ™ŽÆ›þã þÀ퍫™ ¸–íã‘Å. 
—ºÏź‘Ò‘î œ› ƒÒ™ŽÆ›è ƒ´°€Æî. ‡ª¨´—°‘€ º´³¿ º‘ª¨äÖ ºÍº‘¥Ö, ±ÏÃύ‘í쿺€¥ ‚ŽÆ ƒÌ¯€¥´ °ØÑ´³ ˆ€îÆ þÀ퍫™ ¸–íã‘Å. 

1.2.2 ƒï ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ þÀ퍫™ ¸–퍀ãþÆ ÄÒÀ‘™ —‘¯¨, ƒÆÓƸ–ÓÆ Ã€éÇƀÒþÆ Ã€éÇÆґ™ —‘¯¨, ƒ×íêò †þ¥ —×俺ª¨Å —×俺¥‘³Å Ì¹³ À€é—º‘Ï㑍™ Ž¥™Å —ÀËÇÆÖ½€ã ¸¯¬±ò ‚˹³ ¯¥êÉÅ êÀ‘î›è ƒÒ™« ¸–퍀㠗×äÇ¥ ³€«Æ‘ ¶íŽòéî. —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÅ ƒ×íêÖ Á¢ é¹° Šò鑍´ ±âŽòé³. ƒ°í Š¿º‘î Šòì ƒ³ ׀ÌÇÖ 
þ°‘òéØÖ€Ò ‡òº³ ¹±™ þׯ¦Æ Šò鑐Å. ƒ´°€Æ êØò —œÒڍ€ã ºÌ‘¿ºÌ¢ —œÒÚè ‡òì ˜éґÅ--- ºÌ´±ò †þ¥ Šä¹±Ï™Å, þÝ ½€°¹³ Ž¥™Å ºÌ´€°™ ‘« ÃÆÖ×°‘Ö ƒÜבì. ƒ› ƒÒ™ŽÆ›è ×ݙŽÆÖ —À‘ÞƑ, ñº×›äò þµÌ¦ —×俺‘¨ã‘ €ÀÉÅ €×ÉÅ, ×í€é Šª¦ 
ºÖ׀ ¬ µÒ›þ㑨 ½Ò×Ñè º€¥™Å º€¥¿»Ò™ŽÆ›æÅ ‚Å. ƒ×í€é ƒÆÓƸ–ÓÆÅ »€ÝƑ³ ½€°¹³  Ž¥™Å …ò€À€ã™ ‚œé™ ¯¨ ×í€é —œËÉè ƒÒ™ŽÆ›ã‘ ¡´±Ì צØÖ Æ‘´°îÚÅ ¥›Å. 

1.2.3 ƒÜ×‘ì …ÒŽÆÖ ‚˹³ ×íêò …¯€À€ã´ —°Í¹³ —‘èãþׯ¨Å ‡òé ÀÅ, °€îƒÆÓƸ–Ö —µê ×ÞþÆ ‚Æþׯ¨Å ‡òé ÀéÇÆÖ —°äÚÅ, ‚ÁÆ´±í Ž€¥´° À‘—ºÏÅ —°äڍã‘Å.  °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€î ™‘Ò¹—°‘ª¨, ƒÜ×ÞÇþÒþÆ —œòì »éÑ ‘«‘ ºíºÒ —Àˍ€ã™ ¯¨ é¹³èã³. 

1.2.4 —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ °Å ´±€« ½é´±€« º‘º‘¨Å, ƒ×í€é Šòþ鑗¥‘òì —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ ˆà   ±€«ã‘ א´°³Å, þÀÕÅ ƒ×íêÖ —°Ëכäò ‚ªÇÖ €ÀÉÅ ¹ ‰¹±€«ã‘ŽÆ ê¤ ÃÖ€Ò ÀÏ°Å —µË°Ö º‘€Ò ‡òº×í€é þ×íº¨´± ŠÜÚ׳ µÖÒ³ ‡òì ˆíì ,ƒÜ×‘ì —°Ëכäò Ï㑪 ƒÖґ €™Ž€ã —ºÏ¹±€« Šà™›€ã µÖÒ°ÖÒ ‡òì Š³™ŽÆ³Å, »í‘Ò´±Ö °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇò ¦¿º€¥ã‘ €À¹³Øª¥î. º‘× ½¯¬Æ ‚ËÚ ƒ°ò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ ×ãѹ³è〰™ ‘«Ò‘Å. 

1.2.4 ƒ¹° ±€« א¿»Ö ƒòñÅ é¹°—בòì ‡ò€î—Æïò, µÖÒ³ ‡òì ×Ñè ¯¥ ¹° ò ‰¹±€« Šà™›ª —°Ëכè þÀØ ¶òì ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ €ÀŽòéî ‡òº³ÚÅ, þÀÕÅ ƒ×í€é ò»ò ‰¹±€« ‡òì Ø㙎ƳÀ‘Å. ò»ò ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ êÚ¥òº‘ª¨¥ò ‡àÅ À™ã³ Šà™Å ˆíì™ —‘è㿺¨º€× ‡òìÅ ´þ°‘¨ ƒ€× —°Ë×´þ°‘Ý€ÀÆ‘Ö µ¥¿ºî ‡òì› ˜êÆ ¹µÒ´°‘Ö, ò½ ‡àÅ …㿺¯º‘ª¦íÅ › —°Ëכè þ°‘òê ¶íº°íÅ ‹Ñ —°‘¥Ñ½ …¯—¥î Ø㙍¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. °ÁÝ¢ œÀÆÅ º™± œÀÆÀ‘þ× ×ãѹ³èã°í ƒ™¯¨ »¦¿½ ‹Ñ ‘Ì«À‘ 
ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. 

1.2.5 ¨´³ º‘€Ò´ ±€«€Æ¿ ºíê ×Ìґíì é¿½Á™ ‹Ñ ê¿½À‘Å. º‘€Ò´ ±€« °ï´³ Ø㛍‘³, ˆ€îÆ ±€«äò †þ¥ ƒÏ™—À‘òì ‡òé³Å, þÀÕÅ º‘€ÒÇò ±Íþº »é ±€«è ‡òì› ˜ê¿þº‘¹°³ ×Ìґíì é¿½Á™ Šò鑎ت¥³. ƒ³ º‘€Ò™ —°Ë×À‘ŽÆ ºÒ×ïò, —‘íé€×Çò ±Íþ× »é —°Ë× ×¦×›è ‡òé×‘ì »í‘Ò´³ —°Ëצכ€ã¿ ºíê ¹±´³´ —°äÆ ¦þ‘Ó ƒÏ™Žòé³. 

1.2.6 ƒ¹° ¸–í鑯¦ò ƒì±ÆÖ ‡à¹³èã ±Ï×Ϫéè, ƒ¹° ƒÌ¯¨ ׀´ ±€«þ㑨,´±€« ½é´±€« ‚ŽÆ×íêò ½€°´±€«Æ‘ …´±€«€ÆÉÅ, þÀÕÅ ƒ×í€é™ Ýòì Ÿ´°À‘ ×´±€« ‡òé—בòì €ÀÉÅ ‡òìÅ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ ×Þ —œòì ƒòñÅ ‚Ý› ¯¨ Ø㙎Éèã³. ƒ¹ ¸–€Ò ±Ï™éäí ‡à¹° ‹Ñ þºÏ€ÌƑÚ› —‘èãґÅ. 

1.3 â«™ ¸–íè 

1.3.1  ƒï ƒ¹° ×Ìґíêò ¨´° ¶€ÒƑ׳, ½é´±€« ¹°€îÇò ×ãÑ¢Æ‘ â«™ ¸–íäò þ°‘íéÀ‘Å. …èãÅ ºÌ¢ —œÒØÖ ¿ºª¨ À‘îÅ ½éÀ‘îÅ ×Þ¢ —œòì ºíºÒ ñº×›€ã¿ —ºíì ×í€é ‚±´³™ã‘™ —‘¯¨, ¹±´³´ —°ä¹³ ¹°´³ã‘™Ž ‹Ñ׀Æ ¤£‘î ƒÏ€ã ´±Ï¹³  þº‘™ŽÆ¿»ò, ¿º€¥¿ºª¥ ñº×›äÖ …×Ñ¿½ °ª¥, ºÌ¢ —œÒØò —°‘¥™À‘ âÀ‘î¢ —œÒڍäÖ ‚Ñ×Å »é¿º€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ› ‚±´³™è ‡òºî ¹°€î€Æ 虐Š—°ä×íé £‘îÚ±¿½™ã‘Å. ƒ€×þÆ ¹±´³´ —°ä¹³ ‚œé êÆ¿º¨Åþº‘³ ¹°´³™ã‘Žòéî. 

1.3.2 âÀ‘î¢ —œÒÚ ñºØ´³ ºÒ×‘ì ³–Ë´³ ÀŽÝ¿º¨º×íêÖ µ¹µÆŠƑ³, °í¿ ½éź‘î ¹µÆŠƑ³ ‡òé µÆ؜‘Ì€«Æ‘´ —°‘¥›Žòé³. »í‘Ò´±Ö ƒ³þ× òÀ؜‘Ì€«Æ‘, º‘× ½¯¬Æ ؜‘Ì€«Æ‘ ×ãѹ³èã³. º±—«¯  â«™ ¸–íè ƒ¹°¢ —œÒØò ºÖþ×ì º¦¶€Ò€ã º¥Å »¦´³™ ‘ª¨Žòéî. ƒ×íêÖ Á¢ é¹°—בò鑍, …ҍ ×ÌґíêÖ °î™—î ‹Ñ é¿»¥´€°™ —‘¯¨è㰑´ ±â׳ —°Ë׿ ½Ò€À ±Ï×èæ×Íò ±Ï™é㑐Å. ÿº‘€Ò™ —‘¯¥°‘ Ø㛐Šƒ³, ‡Öґ¿ º‘֍äÕÅ µ¹µÆ¿ —º‘Ï€ãþÆ Ø㙎¢ —œÖŽòé³. ‹Ñ׀ÇÖ Ã¿º‘ÕÅ é´³º‘þÒƑÅ. 

1.3.3 ƒÜØҙŽÆ›è ºÌ¢—œÒØò ×Þ êÆ×ÏÅ —º‘ÏãêØ€î —º‘Ë—Æòì Š³™‘³, 
´þ°‘¨ ºÌ¢—œÒØò ñº´±ÕÅ ± ³–ÌÃÅ —œÖґ³Å ºÌ¢—œÒÚÅ —œËƑ³Å, º‘×Å ½¯¬ÆÅ ‡òº×í€é Ÿ€× ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ, 'ƒïÆ' 'ƒòî‘' ‡òé Ï´³äò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ µÆ؜‘Ì€« —œËŽòéî. ƒïÆ ƒòî‘ ‡òºî, Ÿ´°À‘Æ‘ —º‘Ϫ€ã Ÿ€×´°Ò‘Ö ‡àÅ …«Ñڍ㑐Å. º‘Ñ€× —º‘êÓÆ¿ º‘Ñ€×ÇþÒþÆ ƒÏ¿º±ò ƒÜבì. ±Ï×èæ×Ñ Ã´±¿ þºþé æבî þºÍòº ¶€Ò ‡òì ºÌ‘³, ´°€Æ ‚ËڍäÖ ²Ì Øݑ³, éÚ«ÑØò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ °‘ò —ºíé £‘î´ 
—°äڍ€ã ±Ï™éäÖ Ã€éº¨´± ƒÏ¿º³, Ÿ€×É«ÑØò µÆ؜‘Ì€«™ þÀþÒ ƒòñÅ œíì ‚ÝÅ —œÖ×°‘Å. 

1.3.4 é´±í ðò€À °ÏÅ â«™ ¸–íè, —°Ëכ€ã þº‘íìŽò闰ïñÅ, —°Ëכ€ã —°‘à°Ö þׯ¥íº‘Ò³ ‡òì ×í½ì´±¦ñÅ, ‚ÝÀ‘î ƒÏØ€î ‚ËÚÅ, µÖÒ³ ²Æ³ ‡òì …Çэè Øþ׎´³ êÆ ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ ƒ€éƑ€«þÆ ƒÏ™Žòé³ ‡òº€° —°äב êƑ³Å ƒÏ¹±Ï™ŽòéîÑ. 

ƒÜÚ¯€À º™± ‘Ò´±þÒþÆ —°äבŽÆ Šò鑐Å. ƒÏº‘ƒÏº³ ‡òñÅ —Àˍ¯¥ ¸–ÓÖ Á Á ‚ÝÀ‘ ؜‘Í™¿º¨Å ŠòìÀ‘Å. 

1.3.5 °ÁÞҙŽÆ ×ÌґíêÖ, ºÍº‘¥Ö þº‘òé œ› ƒÒ™ŽÆ›ª¿ »é ‚â¹° ƒ€é£‘î´þ°‘¨ ½±Æ°‘ ³é×鴀°ÉÅ ×í½ì´³Å ½³€À€Æ ±Ï™éäÖ Ã°òÀéƑ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ´þ°‘¨ ƒ› —°‘¯¨ ÀÆÀ‘î ³é×é´±í À‘鑍, ½Ò´€° ×í½ì´³Å ×þƑ´ —°‘¥Ñº‘î ³é×鴀°þÆ —ºÍ³Å ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. 

1.3.6 ±Ï™éäò °ï¢ é¿º‘׳, ב♀Çò ‡Öґ ³€é€ãÉÅ ¶€î´³, ×íêÖ Ýº¥ ¶íÅ €î´€°ÉÅ —°‘´³ µÖב♀ ‡òé‘Ö ‡òî? µíº¯º‘¨ ‡òé‘Ö ‡òî? ‡òº€° Ø㙍 Ãíºª¦Ï¿º°‘Å. ƒÜ׀ÇÖ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±ò —º‘Ï㱍‘Ì´±ò …ªŽ¥™€þƑ¨ ƒ³ Š´³¿ þº‘Žòé³; °ò ½±Æ ×ãÑ¢ ¶€ÒƑÚÅ —°òº¨Žòé³. 
 

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