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 ‚ÂÆ´±ò °ÁÝ ×Ìґì (1) 
 º¥ÒÅ µ‘›: œ‘°î‘ØÆí œ‘´±Ì›è

 

1.0  Ïè ×ݙÅ Ï×Þº‘¨Å 

4.1.1  ‡¹° ׀ …º‘Æ´€° …´±€Æ™ €Æ‘¯¥‘ÕÅ, ×ò Ïã‘Òòê þ×ì 
‡Üבíé‘ñÅ £‘îÅ Žª¥‘³ ‡òºþ° €œ×´°‘¹°™ þ‘ªº‘¥‘ ‘€Ì™‘Ö 
Å€ÀÆ‘Ñ ±ÏÄÒÑ ‘Ò´±ÓϹþ° ƒÏ¹³ ×Ï׳ ‡òº€° þÀ퍯þ¥‘Å. ƒ°ò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒþÆ ×£‘î þº‘°´±Ö £‘îÏ ×Þº‘¨Å ×í½ì´°¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ€é×þî ‹Ñ ‚œ‘ÍÆÑ ÄÑ´°À‘ ×¹³ Ãò ¶òìÅ »ò ¶òìÅ þµÌ‘ —×亪¨Å £‘îÅ ½ª¦ Ïæבò ‡òé Ï´³ €œ× ´°‘¹° º‘ÌźÍÆ´±Ö ‹Ñ ×Õ×‘î ƒ¥´€°¿ —ºéґÇíì. ×£‘îþº‘°´³ ‡ª¥‘Å ¡´±ÌÅ ƒÜ×‘ì ƒ°€î ×í½ì´³Žòé³: 

  ‰Å½Òò þ×¥Íò Æѹ°€î ×ãѹ—°î´ 
  °ÅÃ°Ö ÏÚÀ‘Ë´ °×´±ïÖ …«Ñ´±Øª¨ 
  òïÆÅ ƒò€ÀÇò ÌòÝÖ —œÕþÀ. 

º‘œ¢—œÆÅ º¯®Ø™ ƒ€é×ò ÏÍÀ‘ —×俺ª¨ ºíºÒ °×›äÖ Ø݀״³ Ÿ´°À‘™Ž, ³—º‘à³ òïÆÁòê  òþé ´±Ï™Å ƒ€é×þ Šòê´³ ¶í ؀ãƑ¨×ò ‡òŽòé‘Ñ.ƒÜ×‘ì ÏÍÀ‘ £‘îÅ ½ª¨×€°ÉÅ ƒÜבì Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. 

  —ÀË£‘îÅ °‘þî ؀ãÉŠؤ£‘îÒљ 
  ¤£‘î ¢œÒљ ™ÏבË-- —Àˤ£‘îÅ 
  »òñ«Ñ´³Å; òê¿ »ÌãƑÒϙ 
  Ãòñ«Ñ´³Å °‘ò Ï×‘Ë Ãò. 

œÒÑ, »ÌãƑÒÑ, ؤ£‘îÒÑ ‡î ×ÏÅ Ä׀ ‚òÀ‘™äÖ, ÃÅÀқã‘ÕÅ º¹±™¿ºª¥ œÒэª À‘ï¥ צØÖ £‘îþ°î‘ ×¹³ £‘îÅ þº‘±¿ºò; ÃÅÀқäÖ À‘Æ‘ÀÒÅ þº‘™Ž, —ÀËÆêÚ Øœ‘Ì€« —œËÆ×ÖÒ »ÌãƑÒэª £‘î´±Ö £‘îÀ‘ŽÆ —ÀËÆêÚ Øœ‘Ì€«ÇÖ Ùâ´° ×ÖÒ £‘îÏ×‘Ë —ÀË£‘îÅ …«Ñ´³×‘ò. ƒï òÀÀÒÃÅ þº‘™ŽÆ ؤ£‘îÒэª, °‘þî ´³ °ª«‘ÄÑ´±Æ‘ —×俺ª¨ ×£‘îÅ ´þ° Ÿ¥Ì¢ —œË×ò ‡òº³ ƒ°ò —º‘Ï㑐Š

4.1.2 ´±Æ‘ÍÖ ƒ³ â¯¥×‘ì —×亨Žòé³. 

ÏèÏ€× ×Þº¥þ× ×ò ƒ×ò °‘ò ‚Æ 
ƒÌ›ŽÆ ב̫ŠƑ€À Âò ¯¥Å €î€Æ 
ƒÆÖ»—ŠºÍ´³Å ¶€î¹³Å º‘Ñ´³Å 
ºÍ¹³ ƒ€× °‘Å ‚™À‘þº‘Ö ×þÀ ‚™Å 
ºÍ´³Å ¹±´³Å º‘Ñ´³Å °‘þî. (328) 

ƒ€éÆπ㠄ª¨Å ׀ÇÖ Ï×Þº‘ª¦í ðò€À —‘¨´³ Ü×Þ —œÖ՛‘þÒ 
×—ºÏÀ‘þî ºíºÒ ±Ï؀ãƑ¥Ö€ã µ¥´± ×£‘îÅ ½ª¨×‘ò ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. 
£‘îÏØ€î ×À‘þ× º‘Ø™þׯ¨Å ‡òìÅ ƒ°î‘Ö ×í½ì´°¿º¥Ò‘Çíì. ƒ°€î 
Ï«¹±Æ‘Ñ °À³ ƒÏº‘ƒÏº±Ö Á¢ é¿º‘ ‘ª¨Žòé‘Ñ. —º¯€« ¡â —ׯ€« —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ, ƒ×ϙ œ‘°‘Ì« ‹Ñ À‘ï¥î‘¿ º¥ØրÒ, ƒ€é×þî › —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ צØÖ —×俺ª¦Ï¿º°‘™ —‘èŽòé‘Ñ. 

  °ÏÀ‘ °ÏÀ´ °€Ò¶òé‘â þ׀
  ÏÀ‘ ¥Ö إŠ…¯¥ ¯¥¿-- —ºÏÀ‘ò 
  ±Ï—ׯ—«Ë µÖՖѢ Ÿþ×° ×î´°‘ò 
  …Ï—×òî ×¹—°¨´°‘ò …íì 

ƒ› Ÿþ×°×î´°‘ò ‡ñÅ ƒÆ헺ÆÍÆ —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ …ãÅ ƒ€é×þî ‚þם´³, ×þî 
°‘þîÆ‘Ë ¶òì Ïè ½Í¹³ °î³ êƑ€À —¨´€° ¶€î´³ ÀŽâ׀°™ ‘¯. Ÿþ×°×î´°‘ò ‡ñÅ À‘ï¥€î ‚› ‘«‘³, ´þ° —×俺ª¨ ¶íÅ ÿÒÀ¬Á¥íì ×—ºÏÀ‘€îþÆ ‘¯Žòé‘Ñ. 

4.1.3 ƒï  ´±Ï¹³Å ºÒ×‘ì £‘îÅ ½ª¦ ÏæÅ ƒ€é×ò ½é´³ £‘îÏ צØÖ —×俺ª¨Å °±É€¥þƑљ Ï躑ӿºò ‡òì Á ØÍבÚÅ  18‚׳ ×ÓÕÅ ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. ƒ€é×ò ´±Ï¹³ £‘îÅ ½ª¥€Ò ƒÜ×‘ì ‘¯Žòé‘Ñ. 

  þ‘Ò› —‘¯¥×‘ì …«Ì‘þ° 
  £‘Ò› ‘×Òò Ƒ—îî™ —‘僿 
  —º‘Ë€Æ —À˗Æî¿ ½òì €×Æ´³ 
  ‹¥‘¿ ¾ª€ µ‘¦ µ‘¥‘ 
  ‡òñª Ì¹³ ‡ò »ò ×¹°Ïä 
  ‡ò€îÉÅ °ò€îÉÅ êØòê ƒÆíìÅ 
  ‡òî³ Æ‘—îñÅ ¹€°É› ¯¨ 
  Ƒ×Ñ Æ‘€×ÉŠƑ›®¤ —œòì 
  ½™Þ¿ ½™ —ºÆÑ´³Þ¿ —ºÆÑ´³ 
  Á™ þº‘Å Ø±Æ‘Ö Ø€ã´±ª¨ 
  ‡í º¬Æ‘ã‘Ë ‡€î¿ »ÍƑþ° 
  ‹¦ Âè—î ‚¥Ö º‘Ñ´±ª¨ 
  ‡ò×Þ ¶òéîò ‡¹€° òþ

ƒ€éÆÏã‘þÒþÆ ‹Ñ ׀Æ‘î ב♀ €À¹³èã³ ‡òì êƑþ° ‚òÀ‘™è, °í—œÏ™Žò °‘þî °ò êØò ¶€î´°€° €¥ÆæÉÅ ‡òì —‘¯¨ —º‘Ë€Æ —À˗Æòì —‘¯¨ …ҍ ב♀ÇÖ —ÀËÆêØ€î ºÆ™‘ íº€« ב♀ ב⹳ žÌÞÉÅ þº‘³, ¹° ‚òÀ‘™è êƑׯ«Å ½€°ÉÏ×‘Ë ¶òì »é £‘îÀ‘Ë —×俺ª¨ °ò€îÉÅ ‚òÀ‘™ã³ …¯€À ê€×ÉÅ …«Ñ´± ÏæŽòé‘ò ƒ€é×ò. °î‘Ö ‡òî³ ‡ñÅ ÀÀ‘ÌÊƑò ‡ñÅ ›‘ÌÃÅ —¨Žòé³. ƒ€é×ò 
Ƒ€ÌÉŠƑ›Å ت¥º‘¦Ö€Ò. ‡Öґ ‚òÀ‘™æÅ ‹Ñ íéä ½¢—œËÆ ½¹³Å, Ø¥¢—œËÆ Øª¨Å ºíºÒ ñº×›€ã ر À‘鑳 ñºØ™ €×´³ ‹Ñ º¬Æ‘ã€î¿þº‘Ö Ø¥‘³ —°‘¥ÑŽòé‘ò ƒ€é×ò. ƒÜב—éÖґŠ°‘ò ‚ª¥¿º¨×€° êƑþ° —œÖÕÅ ‚òÀ‘™€ã Š¨Àª¦ÕÅ ‹¥ª¨Å, ‹¦ Â㪨Š‡òé×‘ì °‘ò œÒ¥‘³ ‘´±Ï¹³ °™ ºÏ×Å ×Ì °ò⠶촳Žòé‘ò ƒ€é×ò ‡òì ƒ€é×ò ‡Üבì ב♀ÇÖ ºíºÒ µ‘¥›è ×Þ £‘îÅ ½ª¨Žòé‘ò ‡òº€° —°äב Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. 

 4.1.4 ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ ƒ€é×þî  ÏÄÑ´°À‘ÚÅ ×¹°Ïä Ù¨þºì ä¿ºò ‡òì› ˜ê 
±œÇ™Žòé‘Ñ. 

  —º‘Ïè Á ×Ïè°ÕÅ —º‘Ë¿º€ Ƒ°Õ› 
  €¯¨ —‘è—ãî™ ¥ÕÒ êÆ 
  —Àˍ¯¥ þ°×ò ‡î¿ —ºÆÑ Ø΃´ 
  °òñª Ì¹³ °‘ò Ãò 
  °òî³¹ °‘ñÀ‘Ë ‡ò€î ƒò鑙Ž´ 
  °ò€îÉÅ ‡ò€îÉÅ °¹³ °î³ 
  —œËƑ€ÀÉÅ ‡î³ —œÆÓò€ÀÉÅ 
  ‡ÅÀ‘ò ‘ª¦ ‡Ë°Ö 
  ÅÀ‘ ‡î™ ±œÆ¹ °ÏþÀ 

´þ°  ¶òì ‚òÀ‘™è êƑþ° ‚ª¦¿º€¥´³ £‘îÅ ½ª¨Å ƒ€é×ò, °‘þî €î´€°ÉÅ ÏæŽòé×ò, ‡Öґ —º‘Ë™Å º€Æ‘Žòé×ò ‡òº€° ƒ¹° ºÌ¹° …ÒŽÆÖ À™è µÒþÀ êÆ, —Àˍ¯¥‘€Ì¿ þº‘òé ×£‘ïè …èã´±Ö Ì¹³ ¶íº³ þº‘™Ž Ãò ¶òì, Ï㿺ª¥ €î´€°ÉŠ¯¨Å °î°‘™Ž, °ïò ‡Öґ ºí썀ãÉÅ ³€¥´—°‘Þ´³ µ‘ò ‡ñÅ °òÀŠ‡Ý‘³ Š¨™Ž °ïò °ò€î¿ºíêÉÅ ‚òÀ‘¿ ºíêÉÅ —ÀËÆêÚ  þ°‘òìÀ‘ì …ºÍ´³, °î³ —œËƑ³ 
—œËÉÅ º‘›Ž€îÉÅ ‚òÀ‘™ã³ °íþº‘°ØÝ¿€ºÉÅ ¯¨ ±œÇ¿º³°‘ò µÅÀ‘Ö ‚™˜¦Æ³ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ‚òÀ‘™è ØÏŽŽòéîþב Ö€ÒþƑ, £‘îþº‘°Å µ¥¹³ —‘¯þ¥ ƒÏ™Žòé³, ƒ€é×ò Š¦Æ‘þ° °€î µ¥´± —‘¯þ¥ ƒÏ™Žòé‘ò, °ïòê °¿»™þב °€î °ØÑ¿ºþ°‘ æƑ°—בòì ‡òé ê¿½Å ƒ›þ Ž¥™Žòé³. 
ƒ€é×ò ºíºÒ °¹±Ì›€ã ‡Öґ ‚òÀ‘™äò ב♀ÉÅ ºÇòì £‘îÅ ½ª¦™ —‘¯þ¥ ƒÏ™Žòé‘ò ‡òé ƒ¹° Ï´þ° œ¥› ¾Ñ×À‘î œÅ»Ì°‘Æ›è ºÒ þ°‘òì°í ‘Ì«À‘ŽØª¥³ ‡òº€°ÉÅ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ב♀ÇÖ ‚òÀ‘™è êƑþ° ´±Ï¹³ ƒ€é×ò —œËŽòé×í€é œ¥›ã‘™Ž Ï×Þº‘ª¦ò ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ ²™€è °¬™€è —œË³ Ù¨þºì ä™×ÖÒ°‘ º€éœ‘íê ºÒ Ì×эè þ°‘òìŽòé‘эè. £‘îþº‘°Å ¯¨Å ‹Ñ —°‘ÞÖ¸ªº™ €ÒƑ ƒ³þ× 
ˆ³×‘Žòé³. 

2.0 Ï œÅ»Ì°‘Æ›è 

4.2.1 œÅ»Ì°‘ÆÅ ‡ñÅ Ï´³ —°‘¥™´±Ö À‘Ñ™Å ‡òþé ÏŽŽòé³. ±ÏÄÒÏÅ 
×€Ì—Æ‘ª¦ Ï«¹±Æ‘ÏÅ ƒ°€î ØÍב´ °´°Å ¸–íäÖ Ø͙ŽòéîÑ. ±ÏÄÒÑ œòÀ‘Ñ™Å, œÀ‘Ñ™Å, œí½´±Ì À‘Ñ™Å °‘œÀ‘Ñ™Å ‡òì µ‘›‘ א´³ ƒ¹° À‘Ñ™›€ã Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. ƒ×íé‘Ö €¥Æ™˜¦Æ þºí€é, ƒ€é×þ ˜¦Æ òïÆÁò€À€Æ œ‘þґÅ, œ‘ºÅ, œ‘кÅ, œ‘É¢ÆÅ ‡òìÅ ‘¯Žòé‘Ñ. ƒ×íêÖ œòÀ‘Ñ™À‘׳: 

  œ‘íì¤ œòÀ‘ÑљÀ‘¹ °í× °´³×´ 
  þ°‘íé› ã‘î ŸÏ±¢ Ÿ¥Ñ¯¨ 
  žíéÅ ŠÞ´³ ×þƑ ´°Ì‘Ë™ 
  ˜í鴀° —×òé‘Ñ ê¿½ ê¹°‘эþã  (1450) 

‡òì ×þƑ¢ ´°Ñã‘ é¿½íì, °í×À‘ŽÆ ºÌŗº‘Ï€ã þœ‘±×¦ØÖ ¯¨ °ò×Þ ÀÌ«´€° —×òì ¶í ×Þ ‘ª¨Å Šòì ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. þÀÕÅ: 

  €œ×¿ —ºÏ€À´ °ïµ‘ƍò µ¹± 
  …ËÆ ×´° Ï—µê Šò쯨 
  —°Ë×¢ ×—îê œòÀ‘Ñ™¤ þœÑ¹³ËÆ 
  €×Æ´³è ã‘Ñ™ א´³ €×´°‘þî (1451) 

ƒ¹° Ï—µêƑŽÆ œòÀ‘Ñ™Å, Àï°î‘Ö þ°‘íêؙ¿ ºª¥°ÖÒ; —°Ë×¢ ×—µêƑŽÆ 
ƒ¢œòÀ‘Ñ™´€° €×Æ´±Õèã‘Ñ™ ƒ€é×þî א´³ ä´³èã‘ò. ƒ¹° œòÀ‘Ñ™´±ò ¦¿º€¥ …쿽™€ãÉÅ ×Ñ ºª¦ÆÓ¨Žòé‘Ñ: 

  —°Í™¿ ¾™¢ ¹°€î —œËÆ¿ 
  ºÍ™ Ñ´±™ º‘³¤ ¡¥™ 
  Ïº´± —œËɛ ×ÒÆ´ þ°‘Ñ™´ 
  °Ïô±¢ œ‘Ѿª¨¤ œòÀ‘Ñ™¹ °‘þî (1452) 

—°Ëכ€ã °Í´°Ö, ¾´°Ö, ‚Ý ¹±´°Ö, ºíºÒב º™±Çò þº‘íéÖ, —°Ëכè ‚€«×Þ ¶íéÖ ‡òº×íþ鑨 Ïº™± —œË°ÕÅ …쿽™ã‘ ê™¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. ƒ€×þÆ Ã´± œ‘Ѻ‘î ¶Ò´±Ö ‚òÀ‘™€ã¿ º¨´± £‘î´—°äØ€î´ °ÏÅ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. 

4.2.2 ƒ°í ¨´°‘íþº‘Ö ×Ï׳ œÀ‘Ñ™Å ‡òº³, …ÒŽÆÖ ×‘â™€þƑ¨ Šª¦ ×Ï׳. 

  œòÀ‘Ñ™Å °‘þî œÀ‘Ñ™ À‘î³ 
  ÀòÀ‘Ñ™ À‘ô± ´±™è €×¿º°‘Å 
  »òÀ‘Ñ™ À‘î³ þºÌ‘¿ »é¹±é¹³ 
  …òÀ‘Ñ™ £‘î´³ …ì±É À‘þÀ (1461) 

…ÒŽÆÖ ×ݙ‘ŽÆ ÀòÀ‘Ñ™´±Ö ƒÏ¹° º¦þÆ Ã´± €¥Æþׇ¯¨Å ‡òé ¹€°þƑ¨ 
×£‘î´ —°äØ€î €¥ÉŠÍ´°‘Ö, À€éƑ Ž¥™Žò逰 À€é þº‘™Ž —°äב™Å ÃÆíÇÖ ×‘â×þ° œÀ‘Ñ™Å ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. …ÒŽÆ€Ò ‚˹³ › ƒ€é×€î —°ä¹³«ÏÅ þº‘™€¥Æ³; œ‘™ŽÌ´±Ö ²°´€° —‘¯¨ ×ÏÅ ÃÆíÆ³. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ œÀ‘Ñ™´±Ö …èã‘Ñ þº‘´€° Š³™‘° þƑŽè ‡òìÅ ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. 

  þƑÃÅ þº‘ÃÅ þƑŽÆљ ‚À‘Ö 
  þƑ¤ ×кŠ…íê¨Å …èã´þ°‘Ñ 
  þº‘Å ½ØÇí ½Ï¥‘Ñ´° ´±Æ 
  °‘Å ƒÌ¯¨Å ÞƑ° þƑŽ™þ  (1464) 

œ‘°Ì« ב♀€Æ ב⹳ —‘¯þ¥, …ҍ´³ þº‘›€ã ³–Ë´³™ —‘¯þ¥, ×þƑ´±ò ×Þ ×—œ‘кŠ‘®¹ °€þƑþÌ œÀ‘Ñ™´±îÑ ‡î¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. 

4.2.3 ƒ°í ¨´°‘íþº‘Ö €×™¿º¨Å œí½´±Ì À‘Ñ™À‘׳, Ÿ´°À‘î œÍƑŽÍ€Æ€ã —œÜþ× —œË°º¦ בâŽòé ב♀Æ‘ Ø㙍º¨Žòé³. 

  ¾´°Ö ב´°Ö þº‘íéÖ —œ»´±¥Ö 
  ‚œíé µíé׊בˀÀ à™Žò€À 
  þµ´±ª¨ òîÃÅ ÿŸ´± —œË°ÖÀíì 
  ‚œíé œí½´±Ì À‘Ñ™ À‘þÀ   (1469) 

œÍ€Æ€Æ €ÀÆÀ‘™ —‘¯¥ œí½´±Ì À‘Ñ™Å, ´³ î‘±þÆ Ž¥™Å ÏÀòñ º‘œ›€ã ÿ™°í —º‘Ϫ¨, ƒ€é ×Þº‘ª€¥ þº‘íì×°‘Å. 

4.2.4 ƒ°ïò ¨´³ ×ÏÅ °‘œÀ‘Ñ™Å, —œËŽòé º¬—ÆÖґŠȜíþ ‡òì ƒ€é×ñ™þ —°‘àź‘Ž ¶íº³ ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. 

  ‡äÆîÖ ²ºÁ¥Ö ÀÒї‘Ë°Ö 
  ä±ò —ÀàÖ ³³–Ñ´°Ö בⴰ֠
  ºäÀ¬ ºíéÖ ºòÀ¤ œîÀ‘± 
  °ä—°‘ÞÖ —œË׳ °‘ò °‘œÀ‘Ñ™À‘þÀ  (1475) 

þ‘ÇÖ ×Þº‘ª¦í …ÍƳŠ—°Ë× ×Þº‘ª¦í …ÍƳÀ‘ŽÆ ÀÒї‘Ë°Ö, ²º³–º› ‘ª¥Ö,  þ‘Ç€Ò™ àØ Ÿ´°À‘ €×´°Ö þº‘òé º¬äÖ „¨ºª¨, ‡ÜØ¥´³Å º¬ „œò º¬—Æòþé בàÅ °ò€ÀþƑþÌ °œÀ‘Ñ™‘±Ö ºª¥‘Ì‘Å.»í‘Ò´±Ö ƒÜבé‘î ±ÏÄÒÑ Ï´³þ㑨 …¥òºªþ¥ Ï«¹±Æ‘Ñ °À³ ´±Æ‘ÍÖ ƒ¹° µ‘›×€ 
À‘Ñ™›€ãÉÅ Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. 

4.2.5 ƒ¹° À‘Ñ™ ב♀Çò þµ‘™—ÀґŠ×£‘î¹—°ä¹³ ƒ€é× þœÑ°þÒ ‡òìÅ Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ´°€Æ À‘Ñ™›è À¹°Å À¹°°ÌÅ ²ØÌÅ ±ØÌ°ÌÅ ‡òéבì ×ÏÅ œ´±¶º‘°Å °¹³ œ‘þґÅ, œ‘»ÆÅ, œ‘п»ÆÅ, œ‘É¢ÆÅ þº‘òé º°Ø€ãÉÅ °ÏÅ ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. œ‘É¢Æ´±ò þº‘³ ‚òÀ‘™è ¶Ì‘°‘ÌÀ‘Ë ¶íÅ ºÌ×€î Ïäî‘Ö êƑþ° êÆ×ÏÅ ‡òì› ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. 

êƑ€À ê׍íê êØñèþã 
êÚ°€î Ïäî‘Ö êƑþ° ê¹³ 
êƑþ° ê´³ ¹°™Ì«›þ㑨› 
˜¥‘þ°  ב¥‘þ° €Ý¹±Ï¿€º ƑÇò 
»êƑ° ×òé‘þî »Í¹³ þ°‘òê¿ 
»Ìº¤œ þº°—ÀÖґŠ°‘î‘Ë´ þ°‘òê 
—µêƑþÒ ƒ€× ‡ÖґŠÖÒבŽ 
¶òì ‡òì¹ þ°‘òê¨×ò ¶Ì‘°‘Ìî‘þÆ  (´±Æ‘Ñ 282) 

3.0 œ¥›ŽÆÖ €œ×Å 

4.3.1  ƒ¿º¥¿ºª¥ À‘Ñ™›è œÅ»Ì°‘Æ›è °´°À™ÍÆ ºÒ œ¥›€ã …è㥙ŽÆ°‘þ× ×ãÌ, ²™€è ‡î¿ºª¨ ƒ€× Á ØÍב ‚Ì‘Æ¿º¨Žòéî.  ×Þº‘ª¦Æþґ¨ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ ƒ€× Á Á ºÝ€ÀÆ‘î ‹Ñ €Ò ‡òé‘ÕÅ, —Àˍ¯¥‘Ï™¿ »é ‹Ñ ½±Æ —°äþב¨ ƒ€× ‚Ì‘Æ¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.  ƒ×íêò Ø㙍´€° ×£‘î ´±Æ‘ÍÕÅ …À‘º± ×‘¢œ‘ÍƑÍò ×¿»Ì‘œ´±ÕÅ, 
»í‘Ò´±Ö º±î‘é‘Å ¸–í鑯¨ ¯ª¦ À€é£‘îœÅº¹°Íò €œ×œÀƗµêÇÕÅ 
Á ØÍב™ ‘«Ò‘Å. Ä׀ Àқè, °íþíº Ä׀ …ÇÑ ×љÅ ‡òé ±ÏÄÒÑ ‘Ò¹ —°‘¥›Ž ºÇÕÅ Ï´³™è ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ ; œÒÑ, »ÌãƑÒÑ, ؤ£‘îÒÑ ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ, ²™€è ºÌ¿ º¨Žòéî. ƒ€é×þî ÏÄÑ´°Å ÄÒÀ‘ ºíºÒ ²™€€ãÉÅ °¬™€€ãÉÅ µ¥´± °î³ Ïäò —×俺‘¥‘þ× µ¥´± ºÌº°´³è ‚ÏÇэ€ã ƒÏ´± Ù¨þºì  ä¿ºò ‡òºþ° Äҙ Ï´°‘ Ø㛐Žòé³. ƒ€é×þî Ïב ×¹³ ±Ïþµ‘™‘Ö, ºÍœ´°‘Ö, ב™‘Ö, º‘×€îƑÖ, £‘퍀ã 
‹³Ø¿º°‘Ö, »Ìœ‘° þƑ¿ ºÇ흍ã‘Ö ƒÌ¯¨ ׀ Šã´±Í ²™€ã‘ÕÅ ƒòñÅ ƒ³ þº‘òé »é×íé‘ÕÅ º‘œµ‘œÅ —œËØ´³ ×£‘îÅ ½ª¨×ò ‡òì ×í½ì´°¿º¨Žòé³. 

 Ä׀ ‚ÏÇÑ ×љÅ ÀÒ´°‘Ñ òÀ 
 ÄÒÀÒ´°‘Ñ Äòì …€¥Æ‘Ñ òþé 
 ²×À‘Å ‡î …Ï×‘Ë ×¹³ µ‘°ò 
 ±Ïþ‘Ö ºÍœ´°‘Ö ±àŠב™‘Ö 
 º‘×€îÆ‘Ö Á¸–Ò‘Ö þƑ¿ º¯º‘Ö 
 ºÌØ×ÏÅ Šã´±ÍÆ‘Ö º‘œµ‘œÅ 
 þÀ××Ïè …°ÚÅ Šã´±Í ƒÌ¯¨ ±éî‘Å 
  ØÆò ŽÍ€Æ £‘î—Àî ØãŽÀ‘þé  (×¿»Ì‘œÅ 8) 

4.3.2 þÀþÒ ê™¿ºª¥ ²™€€ã, ×¿»Ì‘œ´±í í½°À‘î …€Ì¯¥ À³€Ì ×¿»Ì‘œÑ, ƒÜבì Ø㙐בÑ: ±Ïþ‘—Òòé³, À¢œÀ‘î³ €î€Æ¿ º‘Ñ´³ ¶í ¹°¢ €î ¹° À¢œ´±ò —œ‘кŠ—ºíé‘Ñþº‘Ò, ‚œ‘ÍÆñ¯€ÀÇþÒ ´°´€° €×´³ £‘î±Ïª¦Æ‘þÒ º‘Ñ™À×°Ì´³ ´³×‘™äÖ ª¨¯¥ òÀ›€ã´ °Ž´³ ƒÌ‘Øî‘þÒ Øà›ŽØ¥¿ºª¥ œ¹±Ì€î¿ þº‘Ò ÀÒ´±ÌƛäÖ À€é¿½¯¨ Ž¥¹° ‚òÀ‘€×ÉÅ ¹° ÀқäÖ ÿ™€—Æî Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. ƒï ºÍœÅ ‡òº³: º¤œ¿»ÌÀ œ¥››äò —œ‘кÀ‘ÇϙŽé Îº¤œ‘™ŽÌ´€° ×ҙ€ÇþÒ —µ±´³, ƒ¹° »Ì‘Ì´° ב°€î€Æ ÿ™°í —º‘Ϫ¥‘¢ ž¥ñ€¥Æ °€ÒÇþÒ þœ‘±ÀÆÀ‘ €×´³ ¹°¢ 
þœ‘±€ÆÉÅ ×ñ€¥Æ …èæÅ ½éÃÅ ¾Ì«À‘´ ±Æ‘ï´³ ¹° Îùø°´°‘þÒ ×ñ€¥Æ …¥Å»Ö º¤œÒ‘´°‘€ãÉÅ ºÍ´³ ב°€î€Æ ŠÞ¿º³ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. בœ ²™€Æ‘׳ º± ºŸ º‘œ´±ò …¯€ÀÆ‘î Îº¤œ‘™ŽÌ´€° £‘î—בäÉ¥þî ˜¦ …ºþ°´°Ö ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. µ‘ґ׳ º‘×€îƑ—Òòé³ ž¥€î´ °ò€î¿ þº‘Ò ¶òÀÒÀ‘¿ º‘Ø´³¿ »Ìº¤œ¿ ºíéé ÀÒ´±ÌƛäÖ þ°‘ËÚ é ¶ì´³€ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ¨´°°‘ Á¸–—Òòé³, ƒ¹° À鍗ãÖґŠƒ×ñ™ œ¹þ°¹ ²Ì¢ œ‘´±Ì›äþÒ Š¿½™—‘¨´³™ þª¥Ö ¹±´°Ö —°ä°Ò‘Éèã Ä׀ÇñÅ ¶ì´³€Æ‘Å. ‚é‘׳ þƑ¿ º¯º‘—Òòé³ ª¥‘›þƑ´±î‘þÒ Àþî‘؍‘Ì´€° Æ¥™Ø´³ ¶ª€¥€Æ ½Í€Æ‘Å ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. Ú´±Í ‡òº³ ¯¥À¯¥ÒÁª¨ ™Žï‘ÍÆä —œË³ º‘œ¢œÆÅ º¯®×°‘Å. 

4.3.3  ƒ¹° ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒ°‘ò œÍƑ±€ã¿ºíêÆ ‚ËڍæÅ »é™Žòéî.  ƒ×í€é¿ —º‘³×‘ ‘®Á¥´³  ºÒ׀¿ºª¥ ²™€ã‘þ×  …À‘º±Æ‘Ì‘Ö —‘㿺¨Žòé³. 

  ØÏÅ»Æ À¹±Ì‘±‘ÌÅ Ñ¢œî‘±‘ÌÅ 
   þÀÚÅ þƑ‘±‘ÌÅ ‡î¢ œÀÆØþœ¥Å 
  ×ÏÅ; —º‘ÏØÖ ¶Ïב« À¹±Ì›è º°›è 
   ×òî›è ½×î›è °´³×›è €Òè 
  ƒÌ›€¥ØÖ —°‘€ º±—î‘òì ‡¯º´—°‘òì ‰Åº´—°‘òì 
   ƒÏ¸–íþ鑨 ƒÏº´³ µ‘Ò‘ì ‰¹±í 
  ºÌ¹° —µê ì׀ÉÅ ŠÏØ ¶€î×Í°‘Å 
   ºÌº°´³è …ÇÑ ØÌ׿ ºÇíì Àòþé  (×¿»Ì‘œÅ 9) 

œÀÆ¢ œ¥›ã‘×î, ƒ¢™¿ºª¥ À¹±Ì›€ã —œ»´°Ö, Ñ¢œ€î€ã —œË°Ö, »Ìœ‘° 
þƑ¿ºÇ흍äÖ „¨º¥Ö ‡òºî œÀƲ™€ÇÕÅ Øþœ¥²™€ÇÕÅ ¶íÅ. ƒ×íêí þÀґŽÆ  ¶Ïב«´²™€, À¹±Ì›è º±—î‘òì ‡òìÅ º°Å ‡¯º´—°‘òì ‡òìÅ, ™ÌÅ ‰Åº´—°‘òì ‡òìÅ, ½×îÅ ƒÏ¸–íì ƒÏº´³ µ‘Õ ‡òìÅ, °´³×Šÿº´°‘ì ‡òìÅ €Òè ‰¹—°òìÅ ‚ ƒ›šîÅ  Ø͹° ×Þ ‚ì »Ì‘ÌÀ‘ŽÆ ´³×‘™€ãÉŠت¨ ÿ›Ž, Àî±î‘Ö ¶€î´°í Í°‘ŽÆ þÀÒ‘î ×º°À‘ŽÆ œ‘É¢Æ´±þÒ ‚òÀ‘€×¿ —º‘Ϲ³Åº¦ —œËÉÅ. ƒ°î‘Ö Ù¨þºì ä™Žòé ²™€Æ‘ ¶Ïב«²™€ Ï°¿º¨×€°™ ‘«Ã¦Žòé³. 

4.3.4 ƒ¹°´ —°äØò ¦¿º€¥ÇþÒ°‘ò œÍƑ±€ã …¯€ÀƗ°òìÅ …º‘Æ´°—°òìÅ 
ƒÏ׀¿ º¨´± ×íêò þ×íì€À€ãÉÅ Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. 

  ŽÍ€Æ—Æî ÀÏÚÅ €× ƑÚÅ £‘îÅ 
   Ž€¥´°í ¶Á´°—Àî™ Žã™Å; …¯€À¢ 
  œÍ€Æ ŽÍƑþƑ´ °ò€ÀþƑљ¢ 
   œ‘þґ œ‘º œ‘к›è 
  ÀÏØǨÅ; …ÆÑ£‘îÅ ƒÑ¯¥‘Å À‘é‘ 
   ÀÒÅ Ö Ò‘° Àòñ þº‘°´ 
  ±Ï×Ïè Šò—éòì °€î´ —°äÆ þב³Å 
   ×‘ÀÅ ‡òì …ÒêÆ¢ —œ¿½Å ¸–þÒ 

œÍƑŽÍ€Æè €î´±ò —ÀËƑî þµ‘™Å ×£‘î´—°äÚ €¥°þÒ. ƒ¹° þµ‘™´þ°‘¨ —œËÆ¿º¨Žòé ŽÍƑ±þã …¯€ÀÆבÅ. »é—×ґŠ…º‘Æ¢ œÍƑ±ã‘Å. …¯€ÀÆ‘î  œÍƑ±€ã —œËþבϙþ œ‘þґ‘± º°Øè ×¹³ìÅ. þÀÕÅ ×¹°€ÀŽòé £‘î´±Ö, ±Ï×Ïþ㑨 ˜¦ ‚«×ÀÒ´±ò ×Õ¿»¦ ÿ›Ž ×£‘î´—°äÚ ñº×¾Ñ×À‘ ê׳ Šòì; Àí—é‘òì ƒ´°€Æ £‘î´€° °ò …è契™ —‘¯¦Ï™Å ×‘À›è þº‘òé×í€é ‹± …«Ñ×°‘Å. 

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ £‘î´—°äÚ ¶€Ò€ãÉÅ   °íÍÆ œ‘°î›€ãÉÅ ƒòñÅ Ø㙍 Á ØÍ×‘î ×´€° þº° ‚ËÚÅ þÀ헍‘㿺¨Žòé³. ±ÏÀ¹±Ì´±ò ‡ª¥‘Å °¹±Ì´³ ؜ƛè ½±Æ ® ÀéþƑ¨ ¯¨Å ‚Ì‘Æ¿º¨×€°ÉÅ ºÒ ½±Æ ¸–íäÖ ‘«Ã¦Žòé³. 

4.0 °œ™ŽÌÀ´ —°äÚ 

4.4.1 ÿ—º‘Ïè …¯€À€ãÉÅ ×íêò ƒÒ™«›€ãÉÅ ƒÆÓÆ ¸–ÓÆÅ ×àב³ 
ƒ¹° ºÌ¹° …ҍ´€°þÆ ‹Ñ —ºÏ¸–Ò‘™ —‘¯¨ ‚˹³ ‚â …¯€Àè ºÒ×í€é 
¶ì´±Æ ã¿ºÏÅ —ºÏ€À —Àˍ¯¥‘Ï™þ …¯¨. ×̳ ×£‘îþº‘°Å °¹° 
—°äØò ×ÞþÆ °‘ò Ï«¹±Æ‘Ñ ™‘Ò´³ Øã›ŽÆ ‡Öґ œÀƛ€ãÉÅ 
ºÌº™À‘™Ž ÿ—º‘Ïè ˜ìÅ €œ×´€° Ÿº™À‘Ž, œÍ€Æ ŽÍ€Æ þƑÅ £‘îÅ 
‡òé ÀéÇÖ œÀÆ ×‘â™€Çò ƒÒ™«›€ã —°äÚ º¨´³Å þº‘³ 
ƒ€éÆÏä€î „ª¨°íÍÆ œ‘°î›þ㠃€× ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´³ 
…´±ÇÆÖ ´°Ñäò °¹±Ì›ã‘ ƒÏ¿º³ þº‘Ë, Ïè „ª¥´±ò œ‘°î›ã‘ 
—‘㿺¨Žòéî. ƒ³ ×£‘îþº‘°´³ œ‘°î‘ØÆÖ —‘¯¨ ×¹° ±Ï¿ºÀ‘Å ƒ³. 

4.4.2 ƒï …À‘º± ×‘¢œ‘ÍƑÑ, ²™€ ׀Æ‘Ö º‘œ¢—œÆÅ —œË°Ö, º‘œµ‘œÅ 
؀ãØ´°Ö ‡òº€° ×í½ì´±, ƒ¹° º‘œµ‘œ´€°ÉÅ °î‘Ö ×ÏÅ êÚ´ 
—°äڍ€ãÉÅ °œ™ŽÌÀ‘™Ž —×亨´³Žòé‘Ñ. º‘œÀ³ Ò, ‚òÀ‘ —°èãêÚ 
—ºì×°€î '‚òÀ °ÍœîÅ' '‚òÀ Ÿ´±' ‚òÀ ґºÅ' ‡òé Äò鑍 ׀¿º¨´± 
‘¯Žòé‘Ñ. ƒ€× ‚òÀ‘ À‘Ò›è ÿ›Ž ºÌ£‘î´€° —°äÉÅ þº‘³ €¥Žòé 
×´€° ¶€Òã‘Å. ƒ€×þÆ »í‘Ò´³ °œ™ŽÌÀ›ã‘-- º´³ ׀ 
¶€Òã‘-- º´³ ×€Ì —œËÆ¿ºª¥î. …ҍ´³ €î´³ —º‘Ϫ€ãÉÅ …èãבì 
¯¨ —ÀËÆêÚ —ºìÅ —º‘àþ° ƒ€é×€î¿ ºíêÆ —ÀËÆêÚÅ °î‘Ö °ò€î¿ 
ºíêÆ —ÀËÆêÚÅ °î‘Ö °‘ò º‘œÿ™ÃÅ —ÀËƑÅ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ƒÜבì 
Ÿ´°À‘Ž Ÿ¥ÑŽòé —º‘àþ° ƒ€é×þ  …íé ¹¶ÆÅ þº‘™Ž »ÍØòêÉÅ 
þº°ÁòêÉÅ ÃíêÕÅ Š´³¿þº‘Ë …¥›Ž€Æ¹³ Ž¥™Å —ºÏÅþºì ´±™Å 
‡òŽòé‘Ñ. »é …º‘Æ›ã‘Ö ×Ï׳ º°Ã´±þã °ØÑ´³ ºÌô± ÖÒ ‡òìÅ 
˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. 

4.4.3 ƒ°þ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æþ° º±€î¹°‘Å ¸–í鑯¨ íéÅºÒ µ‘¦è ðí 
—‘¯¨ °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇÖ —ºÍ³Å ×ãѹ° °´³×™ ÝíÆ‘Ö ºÌô± ‡ñÅ 
þ‘ªº‘¥‘Å. Ÿ´° Ÿ´°‘Ÿ´° Ÿ´° °´³×›è ‡òé×‘ì …Ò´³ ¶â¢è 
€î´±íÅ, ê¿º‘ êØò ×´€°äò þ°‘íé´±í ‘Ì«À‘ ƒÏ™Å 
Äҙ˜ì€ã, ÿº´³ ‚ì ‡òìÅ —°‘òñ–íé‘ì ‡òìÅ ƒòñÅ ºÒב鑍ÚÅ 
¬´³, °¹° £‘î؜‘Ì€«ÇÖ, °‘ò ³×ÖÒ ³×ÖÒ ‡òì êØïí 
—éäב, ƒ¹° °´³×›€ã Ÿª¨¿—º‘Ï㑍 ‚þ× ¹¶ÆÀ‘™ ¯¨ °î‘Ö 
Ýòì Ÿ´°À‘Ž —œÕÅ —œÒØÖ ¹¶ÆÅ ‚™¿º¥‘ ׀ÇÖ ƒÏ™Žòé ƒ€é×þ 
¥›Ž Šòê´³¿ þº‘×þ° ºÌô± ‡òé×‘ì ƒ¹° ºÌ¢—œÒÚ Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³. 

4.4.4 ƒ¹° íéÅºÒ µ‘¦äò À‘«×̑ŽÆ °´³×¿»Ì‘œÑ ‡òº‘Ñ —œË° 
'°´³×¿»Ì‘œÅ' ‡ñÅ —ºÏ¸–ÓÖ ƒ¹° £‘î¢ —œÒØÖ ×ÏŠÿ—º‘Ï荀㿠
ºíêÆ êØò —°äڍ€ã ÿº³ ×°Ì›ã‘ ׀¿ º¨´± ƒòñÅ ØÍב™ 
˜ê¢ —œÖŽòé‘Ñ. º¯¥‘Ì œ‘´±Ì›äÖ Šòé‘ŽÆ °œ‘ÍÆ Ø㙍Š‡ñÅ 
—ºÏñ–ÕÅ ƒ°€î ƒòñÅ Ø͙Å. ³ãì þº‘°™ ª¥€ã ‡ñÅ ì ¸–Ö 
ƒ´³€éÇÖ Á é¿º‘î Šò鑐Å. íéÅºÒ µ‘¦è À‘«×Ñ ŠÏ×Ì‘Ö Æ‘™¿ºª¥°‘´ 
—°ÍŽòé³. 

4.4.5 ƒ¹° °´³×™ Ýí ¶€Ò™ £‘î؜‘Ì€î —œËÉÀãØÖ ŠÏ×ò º™×¿º¥ 
þׯ¨Å. ƒ¹° º™×´€° €¥Æ, ‚òÀ ×ãÑ¢€Æ Ƒ³ —‘¯¨ ×ώòé³ ‡òé þèØÉÅ ƒ°þ …¥ò ‡Ý, œÍ€Æ ŽÍ€Æ þƑÅ £‘îÅ ‡ñÅ ×£‘î´€° ¶Á´°À‘™ —‘¯¥ —œÆÖè ‡òºþ° ƒ°í ؀¥Æ‘Ž ×íêò º‘Ö ºÒ Ø°À‘î ‚Ì‘Ë¢è —œòéî. ƒ×íêò ØÍØ€î ºÒ ×¥—À‘Þ ‚À ¸–íäÕÅ '°´³×¿»Ì‘œÅ' '¶´±ÆòÀ —µê' ' €œ×¾œîÅ' þº‘òé ºÒ °Áâ ¸–íäÕÅ ‘«Ò‘Å. ƒ´°€Æ ‚ËڍæÅ, 

 '‘®Å ¯®™ ‘ª¨Å …ãÅþº‘Ö 
 ‘« …è㴀° ¯¨ ‘ª¥Óò 
 Æ̑ ò»ò Ìò ÝÖ —œÕþÀ' 

‡òìÅ 

 '—œÅÀÒÑ þµ‘¹°‘è þœÌÖ Šª¥‘ 
 ÅÀқ ßƒ òºþ̑¨ À΃ 
 À‘Òé þµÆÅ ÀÓ¹°×Ñ þ×¥ÃÅ 
 ‚Òƹ °‘ñÅ Ìò ‡î´ —°‘àþÀ' 

‡òìÅ —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ °À³ ×£‘îþº‘°´±Ö Ø㙎ÆÏäÆ°í Š¿º €À¹° ØÍڍ㑍™ 
‘«Ò‘Å. —ÀË£‘îÅ ‡òº³ ƒ€é×î‘Ö …«Ñ´°¿º¨Å Šòì, ºÖþ×ì ׀ÇÖ Ï ÄÑ´°À‘Ë ¶òéæבò ‡òé ƒ™Ï´þ° €œ× ´°‘¹°´±ò €Àƙ Ï´°‘ ƒòéãÚ ƒÏ™Žòé³. …èã´±Ö Ž¥™Å þת€þã, ¯è ‡€°™ ‘«þׯ¨Å ‡òº€° ¶ì´³×³ þº‘Ö, …èã´±ò þת€€ã ¶ì´³Å ƒ€é×þî, 

¹° …èãþÀ °‘ ¶íÅ ƒ€é×þî ¹° …è㴀° …èãב ê¹³ …¯€À€Æ …«Ñ´° ×ÖÒ×ò. °î‘Ö ×ò Ƒ³ —œ‘ÖŽòé‘ò ‡òì ê¹³ —°ä×þ° —ÀË£‘îÅ —ºÏÅ ×Þ ‡òìÅ €×þÆ ƒ¹° œÍƑ±è ‡òìÅ ÏäÆÖ Ø㙍Š‘¯Žòé³. 

4.4.6 œœ ÀÒÀ‘ŽÆ ‚«× ÀÒÅ, £‘î±þ̑°À‘Ë ¶òì ‚òÀ‘™è ×£‘î´€° —ºé—בª¥‘³ °¨´³ ¶íº°‘Ö, ƒ¹° ±þ̑°´€°  íì×þ° ב♀ÇÖ þׯ¥íº‘Ò°‘Žòé³. ƒŒ³ ƒ€éÆπ㠄ª¦, …è—ã‘—Ò‘ä —ºÏ™Žî‘Òòê æƑ—בòì ‡òº±ò, ƒ€éÆϪ º±Ø€î ±Í´³ ÀҺͺ‘Å —‘¯¨ ×ÏÅ ºÖþ×ì …´±ã‘ œÍƑ±è Ø㙍Š‘¯Žòéî. œ´°êÚÅ œ´°êÚÅ ŠÏ›þ 
‘«™˜¦Æ œ°œ´°‘ŽÆ ‚òÀ‘, ƒ´°€Æ …´±äî‘Ö œ´°êڍ€ã´ °ÏÅ Ÿª¨ ÿ›Ž, êØî‘Ö êח°‘Þ¹³ ƒ€é×þ Šòê ƒ€éÆÏã‘Ö ¯¨ œ´°êþ× °ò ê×‘Ë ¶òì »ò œ´³Å Öґ œ´³Å Öґ œ°œ´°‘ŽÆ ×£‘îþÀ £‘îÀ‘Ë ¶íÅ ¶€Ò€Æ ‡ËÆ …°Ú×îþ× ƒ¹° œÍƑ±ã‘ Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³. ³ ³—×òì Ÿª¥êÉÅ þº‘™ŽÓϹ³ Ýòì, €î´—°‘¨Å µ¹¶ÆÀ‘ ¶òéêÉÅ ºÌô± ¶€Ò™ ×ãÌ …°ÚÅ …´±þ㠃€éº¬ ¶íéÖ ‡òº±ò ØÍב ƒ¹°¢ œÍƑ±è ½³ Ø㙍Š‘¯Žòéî. 

4.4.7  ƒ´°€Æ œÍƑ±è °´³×™ Ýí —œË°í ˆ³×‘Žòéî. œÍ€Æþ㠗œËÆ ×ÖÒ×ò, °´³×™ Ýí —œË³ ê³ بº¥, ŽÍ€Æè —œËÆ ×ÖÒ×ò ‚Žòé‘ò. »é °´³×™Ýí ƒòñÅ —°‘¥Ì, ×þƑÅ —œËÆ ×ÖÒ×ò ‚Žòé‘ò. ƒòñÅ ƒòñÅ ƒÜ×‘ì Ýòì Ÿ´°À‘ æØÖ £‘°Å ½ ×ÖÒ×ò ‚Ž, ×£‘î ‚ËØÖ Ø๳ À‘°×´±Ö ØÝ, °ª«‘ÄÑ´± צØÖ ƒ€é×ò ´þ° ÙíêϹ³ ¡òÆ œÅº‘œ€îÇò ×£‘îÅ …ºþ°´³ Ïã, ‚òÀ‘ÚÅ °€î ê¹³ Ù¨þºì €¥¹³ °î³ —µ¦Æ »Ìº¤œ¢ —œÒ؀î 晎òé³. 

4.4.8 ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ °´³×™ Ý흍è ×Þ ‚òÀŸ´± —œË°ÕÅ, ¹¶ÆÅ þº‘™Ž €î´€°ÉÅ µ¹¶ÆÀ‘ ƒ€éÆÏþ㑨 ˜¦þÆ êÉÀ‘ì †Ë°ÕÅ ƒ€éÆÏã‘Òòê µ¥×‘³, ƒ³ÚÅ ƒ€é×î³ º¤œŽÏ´±Æ´±Ö ¥›Å ‡òº€° º±þîݑŠ¸–í鑯¨ °ÅºÌµ‘° Ãï×Ñ °À³ Á é¿º‘î 'º¤œ±‘Ì Ø㙍Å' ‡ñÅ ¸–ÓÖ ±éź¥ Ø㙎Éèã‘Ñ. œ‘™ŽÌÅ —œ‘¿ºîÅ Ÿà´± ³ÍÆÅ ³ÍƑ²°Å ‡î¿º¨Å ×´€°€ã 
‚òÀ‘™è º¨°íÅ ×íêÖ €× ˆê ƒé›°íÅ ‘Ì«À‘ ƒ€é×î³ º¤œŽÏ´±Æ›þ㠁€ÀŽòéî —×òì ƒ€é×î³ ‰¹—°‘Þ֍ª ðò€À °¹³ ƒ¿º¦ ×î³ Ïäí º‘´±ÆÀ‘Å —œÆ֍㑍 œÍƑ±ª Ø㙍Š°ÏŽòé‘Ñ. 

4.4.9 ƒ¹° º¤œ±‘Ì Ø㙍™ Ï´³™è, ¯®€¥Æ ×èãґÍò Ï´³€ã Šª¦ ‡à¹°€× ‡òº€° µ‘Å Ï´±Ö —‘ã þׯ¨Å. —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ, ‚òÀ‘™è œœÀÒ´ —°‘¹°€îƑÖ, º¤œ‘×´€°è ºª¨ ¶íÅ, £‘î´±Ö ñÌ, œ‘™ŽÌ´±Ö ²°´€°™ —‘¯¨ ×¹³ ¶ª€¥ ˜¦ €î´³Å Ÿª¦òê ê¹³ ÀŽàÅ ‡òì ˜ê¿ þº‘, ×ϙ¿ »ò ×¹° ¯®€¥Æ ×èãґÑ, ƒÜ×‘ì ‚òÀ‘™è º¤œ‘×´€°¿ º¨×³Å æØÖ œ‘™ŽÌ‘²°Å ‡Ë׳Šƒ€é×î³ º£ŽÏ´±Æ›äòê µ¥×‘³ ‡òì ±éź¥ 
'ŠÞؗґ¨™Å' ‡ñÅ °À³ ¸–ÓÖ Ø㙍, °í …€Ì¯¥ °ÅºÌµ‘° Ãï×Ñ, ™Ï´€°þÆ ƒòñÅ ØÍ´³ ±éź¥ Ƒ´° ¸–þÒ º¤œ±‘Ì Ø㙍Š‡ñÅ ƒ¹¸–Ò‘Å. ‚ ×þƑ´€° º¤œŽÏ´±Æ›äò ×ÞƑ Ø㙎, °€îÉÅ ƒ€éÆÏã‘Ö ‚׳ ‡òì —°äÆ …°Ú°‘ ƒ¹° ¸–Ö Ø㛐Žòé³. 

5.0 œíÏ ƒÒ™«Å 

4.5.1 ‚Æ¿º¨Å —º‘Ï€ã ‹Ñ ƒÒ™ŽÆÀ‘™ ¯¨ —×俺ª¨ ¶íÅ ½éÚπי —‘¯¨ 
—×俺¥‘³ ¶íÅ ½€°Éϙ€ã™ ¯¨ —º‘ÏäÆÖØ€î —°äב™×þ° ƒÒ™«Å ‘¯º°‘Å. ƒÒ™«À‘ ¶íºî ‚˹³ ‘®›‘þÒ —°òº¨×î. ƒ¹° ‚ËÚ —µêÉÅ ƒÆÓÆ ¸–ÓÆ —µêƑ ƒÏ™Åþº‘þ°, ƒÒ™«›ã‘ êÆ¿ºª¥€× ƒÒ™ŽÆ›äÖ —ÀËƑ™ Ž¥™Å …¯€Àã‘ Ø㛎 —º‘ÏãêØ€î ºÆ¿»™Å. —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÑ ‘Ò´±þÒþÆ, —œ‘퍀ãÉÅ —œ‘íã‘Ö €À¹° ×à×íé —œ‘í—鑥э€ãÉÅ 
‚˹³ —œ‘ÖÓҙ«Å ˜êÆþ°‘¨, œ‘°‘Ì« À™ã³ Šà™›€ãÉÅ ×Ñè ºÖþ×ì 
¡â¶€ÒÇÖ ºÇ֎òé Žã؍€ãÉÅ ƒÒ™ŽÆÀ‘™ —‘¯¨ À™ã³ ƒÒ™«´€° ‚˹° ±é´€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. °Ò×ñ™ÍƳ ƒ³, °€Òؙ …ÍƳ ƒ³, º‘›í …ÍƳ ƒ³, º‘›Ž™ …ÍƳ ƒ³ ‡ò—éÖґŠØ㙎 ×э㳠ƒÆÖ»€î ½Í¹³ —‘èã ÃÆÖ׀° —°‘֍‘¿»Æ —º‘Ï㱍‘Ì´±Ö ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. 

»í‘Ò±Ö ƒ¹° ÀéÇÆþÒ Ã€éÇÆґ™ —‘¯¨ °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€î ‹Ñ °ï¢ é¿þº‘¨ 
×ãѹ³è〰ÉÅ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. œíÏ Æ‘Ñ œíÏ ƑÑ, œíž¥ò ƑÑ, œíž¥ò Æ‘Ñ ‡òì þª¨ Ø㙍› ˜é×¹° ×£‘ïè ƒ×э€ã ‡ÖґŠƒÒ™ŽÆÀ‘™ —‘¯¨, ×Ñè °Å …Ï×´±ÕÅ Šà™´±ÕÅ ½€°¹³ Ž¥™Å ƒÆÖ½€ã —×亨´± Ø㙐׀°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ°ò —°‘¥™´€° £‘î™ ÏÛÒÀ‘´ ±àÅ ±ÏÀ¹±Ì´±þÒþÆ Á ØÍב ƒÏ¿º€°ÉÅ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. 

4.5.2 ±ÏÄҀ̿ —º‘Ï´° ׀ÌÇÖ, £‘îÏב —×亨׳ ×—ºÏÀ‘þî ‡òº±Ö ‡ÜØ° ‰Æ¿º‘¨Å —‘¯¦Ò‘³ ƒÏ™Žòé‘Ñ. 

  ‡Öґ ÚҎíÅ ¿º‘þґò ƒ¿º‘Ò‘Ë 
  µÖÒ‘Ñ …èã´³ Á™Ïè µÖÒ‘Ö 
  ‡ÖґÏÅ …Ëƙ—‘¯¨ ƒ›þ ä´°Ò‘Ö 
  —œ‘Öґѹ° µíÏ Ÿ´° ×þÀ.   (1551) 

Ÿ´° ×À‘ŽÆ ºÌŗº‘Ïþã, ‡ÖґÚҎíÅ ¿º‘Ò‘Ë ¶òéþº‘±ÕÅ Ïäò ‘Ì«À‘, 
ƒ¿º‘Ò‘Ë —×ä×¹³ ³–Æ …èã´°Ñ ´þ° —×俺ª¨ ×£‘îÅ þº‘±´³, €î×ÏÅ …˹³ Ù¨þºé ÀŽÝ …°Ú°Óò Ïב Ø㛐׳ íº À‘ï¥î‘ ƒÏ™ æƑ³, ƒ¹° Ÿ´° ×À‘þ× ƒÏ™þׯ¨Å ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ƒ°î‘Ö ×ÏÚÅ ×—ºÏÀ‘ñÅ þ×éÖÒ Šòþé ‡òé Ï´³Å ‡à׀°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.ŠÏ×ò ´þ° ³–Ì´³ ½€°ÉÏב ¶íº³þº‘Ë, ½éÚÏב ¶òê¥þ×´°‘ò ŠÏ×ò ×ÏבŽòé‘ò. 

  Ïþ× ×—Àî™ ˜êîò µ¹± 
  Ïþ× ×—Àî™ ê´þ°‘Ñ ‚Ñ 
  Ïþ× ×ñÀ‘Ë™ þ‘ñÀ‘Ë ¶íÅ 
  Ïþ× …€ÌÉ«Ñ ×íé´þ°‘Ñ þ‘þ×. (1556) 

×£‘îÅ —°äؙ×ÖÒ ×Ï, ºŸ´³×Å ‡Ý‘×€ ×î‘Ö ÃíêÕÅ ‚ª—‘è㿺ª¥, °ïò þÀ‘îô±€ÌÇò ×£‘îÅ ½ª¨Å °ª«‘ÄÑ´±Æ‘ŽÆ ×—ºÏÀ‘þîƑÅ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ ƒ›. 

4.5.3 ƒ¹°´ —°äþ× œíÏ Æ‘Ñ ‡òì ƒÒ™«Å ‘òº°íÅ …°ÚŽòé³. 

  º‘œ´€°™ ˜ª¦þÆ ª¦¿ ºê´±ª¨ 
  þµ´° ‘ÆŠبش³ þµÑþµþÌ 
  ˜œíé ô±Çí ˜ª¥Ò‘ µ‘ª¥´°³ 
  ‚œíé œíÏ ÅºÒ À‘þÀ.   (1549) 

º‘œ¢—œÆÅ º¯®Ø´³ °î‘Ö íº …¥Ö ºíìÅ °þ ×ÏÅ »é ºí썀ãÉÅ °¹° 
£‘î´—°äØò  þº‘™Ž þׯ¥íº‘Ò³ Ù¨þºþé ‡òì þת€€ã ‡ÖґŠ°òº‘Ö ±Ï¿º ×Öґþî œíÏ ‡òé Ø㙍Šƒ›þ —×俺¨Žòé³. þÀÕÅ ƒ¿º¦ºª¥ œíÏþ× ƒ€é×î³ Ï€ã¿ —ºíì ÀŽâ×°íÅ …°Ú×Ñ ‡òìÅ ˜é¿º¨Žòé³. 

  …¯€ÀÇí —º‘Ë€À ŠÞ´°ÕÅ …¯€À¿º‘Ñ 
  ±¯€ÀÉÅ Š¯€À¢ ×À‘Æ Ü×Ìò 
  ׯ€ÀÉÅ ‡ª—¥ª¨ ´± ÀƙÃÅ 
  ¯«Ö Ïäòê Æ‘Ñ êבþé? (1554) 

…¯€À ‡òìÅ —º‘Ë ‡òìÅ À֐ŠêڍäÖ, …¯€À€Æ™ ‘ñÅ ±é´°‘Ö —º‘Ë€À êØÖÀò —œË°ÕÅ, °íþº‘° íº€î ƒà™æ™ ‚㑳 ‡òìÅ …¯€À€Æþƙ ¯¨ …ÆÌþׯ¨Å ‡ñÅ ÀîÚ챀ÆÉÅ, ƒ°î‘Ö Šäצ״³ £‘îÀÆ ƒÏ™Žòé ×—œ‘к´€°ÉÅ ‡Öґ Àƙ›€ãÉÅ  þº‘™×ÖÒ  ´±è €î´€°ÉÅ  —ºíìËÆ´ °ÏÅ Ì×þî, ƒÜב鑍 ƒ€éÆÏäÖ à¹±¥¢ —œËÆ×ÖÒ Ì×þî —À˙Ï ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. …¯€À¿º‘Ñ ±¯€ÀþÆ °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇò, º¯¨ —°‘ªþ¥¿ ºÇòì ƒÆÖº‘Å. 

4.5.4 ƒþ°¿ þº‘òì œíž¥€î¿ºíêÉÅ ºÒ ƒÒ™«›è ˜é¿º¨Žòéî. 

  œ‘´±î‘Ë¿ ºÌ°´³×Å °‘ñòï 
  ‚´± þº°—µê þ°‘íéÀ‘ŽþÆ 
  ‚Ñ´° »éØÇò ¤ é—îê 
  œ‘´°×Öґò ×ò œíž¥î‘þÀ  (1668) 

œÍƑ±ã‘Æ œ‘°î›€ã ×àב³ ºÇòì, ƒ€éµÅ»™€ ×àב³, ºÌ°´³× ؜‘Ì€«ÇÖ ‚Ý „¨ºª¨ ¯¨Å ¯¨Å »é¿—º¨™´ °ÏÅ ÀÒב°€îÇÓϹ³ بº¨°í ¨€ÀƑ …€Ý´°×‘ì é—îê »€ÝƑ³ —œÖþבþî œíž¥ò ‡î¿º¨Žòé‘ò ƒ›. þÀÕÅ, 

  œ´³Å œ´³Å ‡Üבì‡î´ °‘ò…òï 
  ´€° …Ï™Ž¢ ×îÏè €‘ª¥¿ 
  º´±Çò £‘îÅ —ºé¿º¬¹³ ‚î¹°¢ 
  œ´±ÇÖ ƒ¢€œ´ °þבò œíž¥þî  (1669) 

œíž¥î‘º×ò, ‚ÝÀ‘î —ÀËÆêÚ Øœ‘Ì«ÇÖ „¨ºª¨ êÚè ˆò œ´—°òìÅ œ´—°òìÅ Ø㛐Žòéî ‡òì þª¨™ þª¨´ —°ä×þ°‘¨, Ï€« צØîñÀ‘Ž À™ª ºÒ —°‘¯¨è —œË°×¯«Å °íþº‘° þœª€¥ ŠÞ´³, ×îÏþ㠀‘ª¥, —ÀËÆ‘î º™±þƑ¨ ×£‘î¹ —°ä¹³ ºí썀㠇ÖґŠþº‘™Ž þºÌ‘î¹°¿  —ºÏ›¥ÓÖ ‚Ý ÃÆÖþבþî œíž¥ò ‡î¿º¨Žòé‘ò. 

4.5.5 ƒ¿º¦ºª¥ Ï´³™è —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ ‘Ò´±Ö ¯®€¥Æ ×èãÒ‘Ì‘Ö ƒòñÅ ØÍב ‚Ì‘Æ¿ºª¨è〰ÉÅ ‘¯Žþé‘Å. °À³ ŠÞؗґ¨™Å ‡ñÅ Á é¿º‘î ¸–ÓÖ —º‘³ØÕºþ°œÅ ‡ñÅ Ã°íº±ÇÖ ƒ×í€é™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. °òïÝ¿½ °íþº‘°ØÝ¿½ ‡ñÅ Ï´³è ƒ×Ñ°Å ¸–ÓÖ —ºÍ³Å ºÇÕÅ Ï´³™ã‘Å. ƒ×íêò ¦º€¥ÇþÒþÆ ƒ¹° ƒÒ™«›è ˜é¿º¨Žòéî. 

  °òïÝ¿€º —Æòî íì œ‘±¿º‘ò œíÏבŠ
  Àòñ—ºÏ¤ žÆ À°Æ‘€î --- °òþÀí 
  —œ‘íºî´þ° þ°‘òê´ ³¦¿ºíì™ þ×ÒÀ‘Ë 
  ¶íº³þº‘Ö º‘Ì‘ —îïò?  (ŠÞØÖ.2) 

œíÏ ‡òº×ò, °òïÝ¿€º¿ —ºíé×ò. ƒ³ œ‘´±Ì›€ã ‹³×°‘Ö Àª¦ÕÅ ×¹´€ÀɗÀ‘òéÖÒ. ºíìíì ¶òì …Ò´€°¿ º‘Ñ¿º³Øª¨ ºíéíì º‘Ñ€×Æíé º‘Ñ€×ÇÖ þµ‘™³ þµ‘™Ž™ ‘«þׯ¨Å. ³ ‡¿º¦—ÆïÖ, ‹Ñ ›À‘î³ îØò¯ ‹Ñ À°Æ‘€î °ò€î™ —‘Ö׳þº‘Ò ¯¦¦ñÅ, ³þ×‘Ñ îþ× ‡òì êÚ¹ ±Ý, ³¦¿ºíì º€°¿ºíì €À±Æ‘þ× °€î™ ¯¨—‘¯¦Ï™Å.³þº‘Ò 
…ҍב♀ÇÖ ƒÏ¹³Å °ïÖ —°‘ËÚ鑳 Ýòì ¶òì î‘™ ‘¯º³þº‘Ò …Ò€™ ¯¨ —‘¯¦Ï¿þº‘þî œíÏ ‡òŽòé‘Ñ ƒ›. —Àˍ¯¥‘Ñ —°äÚº¨´±Æ 'þµ‘™‘³ þµ‘™Ö' ƒ› ºÇÖ׀°™ ‘¯. …ҍŠ‹Ñ î×ÖÒ; ‚î‘Ö °€î, îØ€î¿ º‘Ñ¿º³ þº‘Ò º‘Ñ™¿ºÝ þׯ¨Å º‘Ñ€×ÇÆÖº‘í ºª¨ ƒ×Ñ ƒÜ×‘ì ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. 

4.5.6 þÀÕÅ —º‘ËÆêØ€î º¦º¦Æ‘ þº‘™ ×Öґþî œíÏ—×òì þº‘°î‘ØÆÖ œ‘Ѻ‘ ¶òìÅ ƒ°€î Ø㙐Žòé‘Ñ. 

  —º‘Ëþº‘¿ þº‘¿ —º‘Ϲ±¿ —º‘Ï谑 
  €œþƑ þº‘ °Ì›´±- €µÉÅ 
  ºÍº‘› ¯¨ º€°Æ‘Àí º‘Ñ™› 
  Ïþ׍‘¯ £‘î™ Ï   (ŠÞØÖ. 7) 

ƒ°í °ÅºÌµ‘°Ñ °ÏÅ …€ÌƑ׳: —º‘ËƑŽÆ Ï؍è ÿº´°‘ìÅ ÿ› ÿ™þ× €×€ã¿ º´°ê¹³ ÿ›Ž ¶òé êÚ °‘—îòì °ò€î Ïã‘Ö …è㺦¯¨, »ò½ Ïè°ÍœîÅ, º€Ì °ÍœîÅ, º€ÌþƑÅ ‡òñÅ ƒ×í€é €¥¹³, —ÀË¿—º‘Ïè °‘î‘ŽÆ ñº×œ´±ÇÖ þ°‘òìÅ ‚î¹° þº‘ œÃ´±Ì´³ €ÒÇÖ ×ò €Ì¹³ þº‘¹ ²ØÌ°Ì º™×Å „—°òì ¯¨ À‘«‘™î³ þº‘°Å ®×ãþ×ñÅ º€°Æ‘³ ¥›™ ŽÏº‘þÅ €×™Å ‚œ‘ÍÆþî £‘ÍÆî‘בò. ¯®€¥Æ ×èãґљ ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ £‘îÏ, ±Ï£‘îœÅº¹°þÌ ‡òìÅ ˜ìŽòé‘Ñ. 

  œ´±Æ¶Ñ ב«´°‘í éíþº‘°´ °‘™ì´³ 
  €×´³×Þ ‘ª¨ À€é¿½Ò×¹--- Ÿ´°ò 
  éÁâ™Íí ž‘Þ¢ œÅº¹° —îòº‘ò 
  ‡À™Ïä¢ —œË° ±³.  (ŠÞØÖ. 11) 

ƒ°ò …€ÌƑ׳: œ´±Æ ¶Ñב«´²™€Æ‘Ö ‡î³ þº‘°´€° Šòþ鑨Šºí鑳 ŠÞ´³¢ 
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