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‚ÂÆ´±ò °ÁÝ ×Ìґì(2)
Äòé‘Å ¸–Ö :ã€× ؜‘Ì€« (1)
º¥ÒÅ Šòì : ¸–Õ´± ‚ËÚ 
1.0 : ŸþÀÏ´°ÁÞÖ ¸–Õ´± Ï´³™è  

1.1.1 ‡òì Àï°ò ¹±™´ —°‘¥›Žî‘þî‘ òþé …¯€À ‡³ —º‘Ë ‡³ ‡òé þè؀ÆÉÅ þª´ —°‘¥›ŽØª¥‘ò. ò鑥 ב♀ÇÖ °‘ò ØÏŽ׀° €¥×°í —º‘Ë€Æ ŠÞ´³ …¯€À Ƒ—°òì êÆþׯ¦Æ ª¥‘ÆÅ ƒÏ™Žòé³. ‘¯Žòé Šòì ‘îÖÿÑ þº‘Ò, þºË´þ°Ñ þº‘Ò —º‘Ë—ÆïÖ, °€î €¥¹³¿ ºÏŽ °î³ °‘´€° ²Ñ™ æƑ³. …¯€À—Æî ×Ï×þ° ƒ¢€œ€ã þº‘™×°‘  
€ÀÆ —°‘¥™´±Ö ‹Ñ …èæ«Ñבþ× ƒÏ¹° ƒ³, º™×Å Ã±Ì Ã±Ì, Šòì ‡™‘Ì«´±ò —º‘ËƑŽòé³, —ÀËƑŽòé³ ‡òé þèØƑþ× ‡Ý, ã€× ؜‘Ì€« þ°‘òìŽòé³. è€× ‡òº³ ƒ› †ò€À€Æ™ ‘«´ °Ï—À‘òì ‡òþé —‘㿺¨Žòé³. °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€î ×ÌґíêÖ Ž.Ã.3000 ‚¯¨ ב™ŽþÒþÆ  ƒ´°€Æ þèØè µò鑍 ‡à¹³Øª¥€° ŸþÀÏ´°Á⠃ҙŽÆ›äÖ  ‘«Ã¦Žòé³. Ïþ㠁€ã€×ƑÅ ‡òì ±ÏÄÒÑ ˜êÆ Ø㙍Šº¯þ¥  
°ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇÖ ‚Ý þ×Ðòê ƒÏ¿º€°ÉÅ ‘«Ã¦Žòé³.  

1.1.2  ˆé™€éÆ Ž.Ã. 2500 ‚Å ‚¯¨ ב™ŽÖ ‡à°¿ºª¥°‘™ Ï°¿º¨Å Enmerkar and Aratta  (Kramer, 1962; Cohen 1973) ‡ñÅ  ±ÏÃύ€î¿ ºíêÆ ‹Ñ ‘ØÆ´±Ö â×ÏÅ ×Íè Ž¥™Žòéî.  EnMerukar ƒ› þ×èÃÏÑ ‡ñÅ —œ‘ÖÓò ÄÒÚÏבÅ. …³×‘ŽÆ ±Ì×ïò ½°Ö×ò ‡òìÅ  ƒ›  ±ÏÃύò ´—°à £‘î¿»Ýź‘ÚÅ ê™¿º¨Žòé‘ò.  (‘¯: ¦þÆî³ The Inner Radiance and the Growth of Tamil Mystic Literature From Sumerian  Times )  

141. u-ba kur-Subur ha-ma-zi   
    (At that time, the mountain lands (of) Shubar-Hamazi)   
142. eme-ha-mun ke-en-gi kur-gal-me-nam-nun-ka   
    (And the different-tongued Sumer, the great "mountain", of the 'me' of magnificence)   
143. ki-uri kur-me-te-gal   
    (Uri, "mountain" possessing all that is befitting)   
144. kur-mar-du u-sal-la na-a   
    (Mountain-land (of) Mardu, resting in security)   
145. an-ki-nigin-na ur-sag-si-ga   
    (The whole universe, the people who are taken care of [by the God])   
146. En-lil-la eme-as-am he-en-na-da ab-du(g)   
    (Addressed Enlil in one tongue)   

ƒ› …ҍÀ™è €î×ÏÅ ŠþÌ —À‘ÞÇÖ ˆ¯ÔÖ ‡ñÅ ŠÑ —°Ë×´€° ³±´°îÑ ‡òì  ê™¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯. an-ki-nigin-na ‡òº³ 'בòâ ¶íŽî' ‡î¿º¨Å. eme-as-am ‡òº³  'ƒÆÅ ˆ ‚Å' ‡òº±ò ÄÒÚÏבÅ. ºÒ—À‘ލè þºŸÅ À™€ã™ —‘¯¥ ŸþÀÏØÖ, þ×íì€À  º‘Ì‘³ ŠþÌ —À‘ÞÇÖ ƒ€é×€î €î×ÏÅ ˆ´± þº‘íê ×Þºª¥€À€Æ™ ‘ØÆ¿ ½Ò×Ñ  —ºÏ€ÀƑ™  ê¿»¨×€° µ‘Å × þׯ¨Å. ¹° ‘Ò™ ª¥´±þÒþÆ —À‘Þ …«ÑÚ  °€Ò³–™ŽÉèã€À€ÆÉÅ  
‚î‘Ö þ×ì þ×ì —À‘Þè ƒÏ¹°þº‘±ÕÅ €î×ϙÅ —º‘³×‘ ‹Ñ —À‘Þ ƒÏ¹°€À€ÆÉÅ  —°ÍÆ×ώòþé‘Å. ƒ¹°¿ —º‘³—À‘Þ, ŸþÀÏ´ °Áâ, ƒ€é×Þº‘ª¦Ö …ҍ´€°þÆ ‚¯¥³  ‡òé  …¯€ÀÉÅ ƒ›þ —×俺¨Žòé³.  

1.1.3 µÅ ‚ËØí —ºÍ³Å …°ÚÅ Ò ê¿½™€ãÉÅ ƒ¹° ‘ØÆÅ þ×ì Ò ×͍äÖ  
—‘¯¦Ï¿º€°ÉÅ  ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. "…´±" ‡ñÅ —œ‘Ö °Á⠇òº³Àª¨ÀÖÒ, °ò —ÀË¿—º‘Ïè Ƒ—°òìÅ …«Ì  ƒ¹° ÍÆ  ×Íè µÀ™ —ºÍ³Å …°ÚŽòéî.  

500. du-ga-ni-[mah]-am sa-bi su-su-a-am   
 (His speech was (now) [great], its contents expanded   
501. kin-gi-a ka-ni dugud su nu-mu-un-da-an-gi-gi   
 (The emissary, his mouth (being) heavy, was not able to repeat [it]   
502. bar-kin-gi-a ka-ni dugud su nu-mu-un-da-an-gi-gi-ka   
 (Because the emissary, his mouth (being) heavy, was not able to repeat [it])   
503. en-kul-aba-a-ke im-e su-bi-ib-Ra dub-gin bi-in-gub   
 (The lord of Kulaba patted clay and write the message like( on a present day) tablet)   

504. u-bi-ta inim im-ma gub-bu nu-ub-ta-gal-la   
 (Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established)   
505. i-ne-se utu u-de-a ur he-en-na-nam-me am   
 (Now, with utu's bringing forth the day, verily, this was so)   

506. en-kul-aba-a-ke inim dub-gin bi-in-gub ur he-en-na-nam-ma   
 (The LOrd of Kulaba inscribed the message like(on a present day) tablet  

ƒ› ×Ìґíì é¿½Á™ ×͍㑍  ×͍è 504-…Å, 505-…Å þ°‘òìŽòéî. ×í€é ‹ÌãÚ °í‘Ò  °Áâ º¨´° —º‘Ïè ƒïþ° Ø㛐׀°™ ‘¯.  

504. †Þ»´³ ‡îÅ „ÆÅÀ ¿½ µ‘ …¿ºÑ´³ ‘ÖþÒ  
505 ƒïþœ …³ …±Æ …ì ƒòîîÅÀ ‚Å  

Ã퍑Ҵ±Ö —œ‘íã‘ŽÆ ‡îÅ ‡òº€°, „ÆÅÀ‘ŽÆ äÀ¯¬ò þÀþÒ ‘Ó¥ØրÒ. ‚ÇñÅ  ƒòì  ´³ £‘î¡ÍÆî‘ŽÆ …³ …±™, ƒÜ×‘ì …ìŽòé³ ‡òºþ° ƒ°ò —º‘Ïè. ÄÒÃÅ µÖÒ  °Áݑ  ƒÏ¿º€°™ ‘¯. ´þ° …è—ã‘ä —ºÏ™Å £‘î¡ÍÆò ‡Ýþ× °‘ò, êƑ€À ÿ›, £‘î´  —°äÚ  
€˜¥, äÀ¯ ת¨äÖ —œ‘퍀㠇ര‘ —º‘ꙍþׯ¨Å ‡òé ¹°€î …¯¥‘Žòé³.  ƒ°î‘Ö,  ´þ° …³×‘ŽÆ £‘î¡ÍÆ€î …±¿»¿º³þ× …´± ‡òìÅ, ƒ¹° —œ‘ÖÓò —º‘ÏæÅ  —°äבŽòé³.  ´þ° Ž¥™Å ¤£‘î ƒÏ€ã™ ¦¹³ …è—ã‘ä —ºÏ™ …°Úº€×þÆ …´± ‡î¿º¨º€×.  
‚ …´±  —ÀËÆêØ€î ºÆ¿»¿º³, …¯€À€Æ™ ‘«´°Ï׳ , ¤£‘î ƒÏ€ã™ ¦ÉÅ Ï€ã  „ª¦´°Ï׳ ‡òé  Ï´³™è ƒ›þ ½€°¹³ Ž¥¿º€°™ ‘¯.  

1.1.4 ŸþÀÏ´ °ÁÞÖ ÖØ þè؍æ¥þîþÆ …´± ‡ñÅ Ï´³ ×ãѹ³è〰ɛ ‘«Ã¦Žòé³.  

¡âŽ(>¡Þ, þœ‘Ýò?) ‡ñÅ À‘Àòîò ŠÏ×ò °ò€î¿ ºíê ‡à±Éè㠻퍑Ҵ³ ½é´±€«  º‘¥Ö€ã¿ þº‘òé Ò º‘¥ÖäÖ (Sulgi Hymns B&C) ƒ™Ï´³è —×俺¨Žòéî.  
ƒÒ™ŽÆ›è  ºÒ×í€é™ ¯¨èã€ÀÉÅ ºíºÒ …´±è —ºË³ ×íêò ƒÒ™«™˜ì€ã™ ¯¨ ×í€é  ׀  º¨´± …è〰ÉÅ ƒ€× µ› ‘ª¨Žòéî.  

3. Sul-gi lugal Uri-ma-ke   
 (Sulgi's, the King of Ur)   
4. a-na za-mi-bi-im kalag-ga-na sir-bi-im   
 (This is the song of his power, this is hymn of his valour)   
5. gal-an-zu nig sag-bi-se e-a-na mu-da-ri-bi-im   
 (Of the wisw, in all things foremost, this is the lasting record)   

ƒ› ºÒ ÝŽÆ ƒÒ™« €Ò¢—œ‘íè ºÇÖ׀°™ ‘¯. œ‘»ÆÅ ‡òº³ ‹Ñ׀Æ‘î  ³±Æ‘Å; œ‘Á Ÿ×‘Á ‡òé —œ‘ÖӀî ÃÒÀ‘™ —‘¯¨ ‡à¹³èã³. žÑ»ÆÅ º‘ª¨×€äÖ  Šòì.  ðλÆÅ ‡òº³ Ãò½ ºÇòì ƒ¿—º‘à³ ×ݙŽÖ ƒÖґ° ŠÑ ÝŽÆ —œ‘ÖґÅ. ó€À¿ºª¨  ƒé¹³  Þ¹³Ø¥‘° ׀ÇÖ Æ‘¯¨Å ¶€Ò´³ ¶íº°‘ŽÆ ¸–íþ㠃¿º¦¿ºª¥€×Ƒ þº‘í鿺ª¨èãî.  ‘Ò¢  
Ÿ×ª¦Ö Þ¹³ þº‘‘³ ¶€Ò´³ ¶íŽòé ºñ×ґ Ò ƒÏ™Žòéî ‡òì Ï´³ ™‘Ò´±Ö  ƒÏ¹°€À€Æ ƒ³ ½Ò¿º¨´³Žòé³.  ó€ÀÉì׀° Í´³ ƒÖґ³ þº‘™Å é¿»ò ¸–íè  ƒ€×ƑÅ.  ƒ´°€Æ —œ‘íè '—°‘֍‘¿»ÆÅ' ‡òºî þº‘òé —œ‘íþ㑨 …Ï× €À¿»Ö Š´³ ×Ï׀°ÉÅ  ‘¯.  ŸþÀÏ´°ÁÞÖ '‘' ‡òé —œ‘Ö 'בË' °ïòì ‡àÅ —œ‘퍀㠗À‘Þ€Æ êº‘°‘ÚÅ  Ø㛐Žòé³.  

1.1.5 ƒþ° º‘¥Óò ˆ€îÆ ×͍è, Öؙ þè؍€ã ×ãљ ºÒ׀Æ‘î ¶€Òƛè  ƒÏ¹°€ÀÉÅ  ±ÕÅ ê¿º‘ ì×эª ºè䙘¥›€ã¿ þº‘òé "ƒÖ-³¿½"è ƒÏ¹°€ÀÉÅ  ê¿»¨Žòéî;ê¹³  ƒò½é´°™°‘Å. œÀ‘Ò´³ ‡Ž¿±Ö ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ Öؙ˜¥›è ƒÏ¹°€À™ œ‘òêրÒ.  

13. tur-ra-mu-de e-dub-ba-a-a-am   
 (Since my (very) youth I belonged in the edubba)   
14. dub ki-en-gi-ki-uri-ka nam-dub-sar-ra mi-ni-zu   
 ([And] on the tablets of Sumer and Akkad, I learnt the art of the scribe)   
15. nam-tur-ra ga-e gin-nam im nu-mu-sar   
 (Of the young, none could write tablets like me )   
16.  nam-dub-sar-ra-ki nam-ku-zu-ba lu-im-mi- DU-DU   
 (people frequented the place of learning (to acquire) the scribal art)   
17. zi-zi-i ga-ga sid-nig-sid-de/ zag im-mi-til-til   
 (And striving and toiling went through their course in all the science of numbers)   
18. dingir-Nidaba sig-ga Nidaba-ke   
 ([As for me] goddess Nidaba, fair faced Nidaba)   
19. gestu-gizzal-la su dagal-la ma-ni-in-dug   
 (with a generous hand, provided with the intelligence and wisdom)   
20. dub-sar ig-tag-a nig-e nu-dab-be-me-en   
 (Whatever the teacher brought forward, I let nothing go by)   

 ƒÜ×͍€ã °Áâ º¨´° ƒÜ×‘ì €× þ°‘òìÅ:  

13. ³ÏÃþ° ƒÖ³¿€ºÆ  ‚ ‚Å   
14. ³¿½ â ˆ›Ž â †ÍƍŠ³¿½ œ‘íìîÅ ¡âÁï   
15. ³Ñ̵Šš‘þÆ š’òîÅ  „ÆÅ µ‘ þÀ‘ œ‘íì   
16. ³¿½œ‘íìîÅ â µ› ¡º ‚æ DU-Du-ƒÅþÀ   
17. ØÞØރ ‘э‘Ñ ´³ ¶ ´þ° / œ‘™ ²Ñ²ÑÇÅÁò   
18. ±›è ¶¥€º, —œ‘™ ¶¥€º   
19. ´³¢œÖÒ € °Ò ³–™Àïò   
20. ³¿½œ‘íì ƒŽ°‘™× ¶ µ‘ °¿½Àò   

ƒ› '´³' ‡òº³ '‹³°Ö' ‡ñÅ Ï´±Ö ×ώòé³. '³¿½' ‡òº³ ‡à´³™è —º‘ꙍ¿ºª¥  äÀ¯ ת¨ã‘Å. ƒÖ³¿½ ‡òº³ ƒ¿º¦ºª¥ ת¨€ã ם™ íì´°Ì¿º¨Å ƒÖÒÀ‘Å.  ב¿º³  ‡òº³ '³¿½ œ‘íì°Ö" ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. ‚ÍÆò '³¿½œ‘íì" ‚Žòé‘ò. ±›è ¶¥€º €Òב¬  ƑÅ. ×è Ïã‘þÒþÆ ¡âŽ °ò ƒã€À ‘Ò´±Ö ˆ€îÆ ƒã×֍€ãØ¥ °‘ò é¿º  ºÇò鰑  —ºÏ€Àºª¨™ —‘èŽòé‘ò. ´³ ¢œÖ ‡òº³ Š›ŽÆ ÌÓÖ ‹³×°‘Å.  

‚î‘Ö µ‘Å ƒ› َÆÀ‘ Ï° þׯ¦Æ³ 'ƒŽ°‘™×' ‡òñÅ —œ‘ÖґÅ. 'ƒŽ' ‡òº³ ƒ€À  ‡òº±ò ÄÒÅ. —ÀË ×¦×Å 'ƒš’' ‚ ƒÏ¹±Ï™Ò‘Å. '™Ž' ‡òº³ ƒ°ò »í‘Ò´ ±Íº‘ÚÅ  ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. 'ƒŽ°‘™×' ‡òº³ ³¿½œ‘íìבµ‘ŽÆ ‹Ñ ‚ÍÆò þº‘±™ êØÖ —°äבÅ  Šò鑐Å.  ƒÜ×‘ì °‘ò —°ä¹³—‘è׀° °¿º بױրÒ, ¶€îØÖ µò鑍 €×´³™—‘èþ×ò  ‡òŽòé‘ò  
ƒÜ×̜ò. ƒ¹° ƒŽ°‘™× ‡òºþ° "—º‘ϳ ™Ž" ‡ò鑎 »é "»Ì´±Æ™Å" ‡òì ±Ï½íé³  ‡òì  Ï°í ƒ¥ñ¯¨. '¯' ‡òé —œ‘Ö 'êÚ' ‡òé —º‘ÏäÕÅ ×Ï׀°™ ‘¯. º‘Ì° ¯¥´³  ã€×  ‚ËØÖ »Ì´±Æ™Å ‡òº³ €î×̑ÕÅ Š´³™—‘㙘¦Æ ‹Ñ ã€×ƑÅ. ™€Ò¢  —œ‘Ö  °ÁÝ ¹°€îÇÖ ÃŽâ´° Šòì ‡òº€° ƒÜ×Íè …«Ñ´³Žòéî.  

ƒ› ‹Ñ ˆª¦€î ב´°Ö, ב´°€° »€ÝÆé ½Í¹³ —‘èãÖ, ƒÜ×‘ì ½Í¹³—‘¯¥€°  Àéב³  ¶€îØÖ ƒÏ´°Ö, °‘׳ ƒé¹°³ ‘´°Ö,  ‡òºî—×ÖґŠ¸–Õ´± Ï´³—ãî, ƒ¹¸–Õ´±  ‚ËÚ  ŸþÀÏ´°Á⠍‘Ò´±þÒþÆ —°‘¥›ŽØª¥€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. °ÁÝ¿ º¯º‘ª¦Ö Á Á ºÝ€ÀƑ
‹Ñ  €Ò ƒ³—×òìÅ êÆ ×ώòþé‘Å.  

 2.0 ÀÌ»ÆÓÖ ¸–Õ´± ‚ËÚ  

1.2.1 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ±ò ‹Ñ »ò¿º‘ þœÑ™¿ºª¦Ï™Å 'ÀÌ»ÆÖ' ‡ñÅ ¸–Ö þîÀ‘,  —°‘֍‘¿»Æ±í Ãíºª¥, ˆé™€éÆ Ž.à µ‘›‘׳ ¸–í鑯€¥¢ þœÑ¹° °ï ‹Ñ ¸–Ò‘´  —°ÍŽòé³.  ƒ°í¢ œ‘òìè þ×þé‘Ñ ª¨€ÌÇÖ —‘¨™¿ºª¦Ï™Žòéî.( ‘¯: The Origin and  Development  of the Linguistic Tradition of Tolkaappiyam and its Impact on the Philosophical Culture of India  
:Tamil Civilization, Vol4 No172 1986) ƒ¹¸–Óò €¥ ¡´±ÌÅ ×Ìґíì é¿½ Á™³.  

ƒ› °‘ò  …´± ‚ËÚ ‹Ñ æØí ×¹³ €î´€°ÉÅ —°‘´³ א´³ —ºÆͪ¨ ×̀œ¿ º¨´°ÚÅ º¨Žòé³.  °€î ƒ› Ã఑ º‘Ñ¿þº‘Å:  

Š´°‘ª …´±×€ ØÍ¿»ò   
¸°ÓƳ ê°Ö, ±‘Ì ÀéþÆ,   
—°‘´³™ ˜éÖ, א´³—À˹ ¶ì´°Ö   
—À‘Þ¹° —º‘Ïþ㑠—¥‘òé Ü×Çò   
—À‘ÞƑ °°€î ê¦òê æ´°Ö   
ב̑ °°î‘ò ×¹°³ æ´°Ö   
×¹°³ —‘¯¨ ב̑° ³«Ñ´°Ö   
ù³ —À‘Þ¹°±ò °€Ò°¨ À‘íþé   
Š¿º™ ˜éÖ, ŠÏ°€Ò —À‘ÞþÆ   
°òþ‘è ˜éÖ, Àé»é ݑ€À   
»éò…¥ò ºª¥³ °‘ò …¥Åº¨°Ö   
ƒé¹°°³ ‘´°Ö ±Ì³ þº‘íéÖ   
—À‘ÞבŠ‡òéÖ, ˜êí —ÌòéÖ   
°‘òê Ǩ°Ö, ŠÏ°€Ò Æò€À   
æ¹°³ ‘ª¥Ö, ‚€« ˜éÖ,   
ºÖ—º‘Ϫ ˆí»ò µÖÒ³ þ‘¥Ö,   
—°‘´° —À‘ÞƑò א´°îÑ þ‘¥Ö,   
Àì°€Ò €°´³´ °¹³¬½ …€Ì´°Ö   
»éòþ‘ª ˜éÖ, êƑ³ …¥Åº¥Ö,   
—º‘Ï胀¥ Ǧ°Ö, ‡±Ñ—º‘Ïè …«Ñ´°Ö   
—œ‘ÖÓò ‡¢œÅ —œ‘ÖÓƑ› …«Ñ´°Ö,   
°¹³½«Ñ¹³ …Ì´°Ö, £‘ºÅ ˜éÖ,   
…Ë´³™—‘¯¨ …«Ñ´°—Ò‘¨ —ÀË¿º¥ µ‘¦¢   
—œ‘ÖÓÆ ÖÒ »é×¯ ×ÍñÅ   
—œ‘ÖÓÆ ×€Æ‘Ö ŸÏ› µ‘¦   
Àî´±ò ‡¯¬ À‘œé´ —°Í¹³—‘¯¨   
ƒî´±í þœÑ´± …«Ñ´°Ö þׯ¨Å   
¸ï´° ½Ò×Ñ ˜êÆ ¸–þÒ   

ƒ¢¡´±Ì´€° µ‘Å ºÒ×‘ì ‚Ì‘Ë¹³ ½€°¹³ Ž¥™Å ºÒ …¯€À€ã —×䙗‘«Ì  þׯ¨Å. ƒ¹° …´± ׀€ã ƒÜבì ×̀œ¿º¨´± …èã€À€Æ þµ‘™Žò, Äòì  ®Ã€é€ã™  €Àƙ þè؍€ã ´þ° —‘¯¨è㰑´ —°ÍŽòé³. Šòì ƒ¹° …´±è°‘ò ‡òî ‡òº³.  ƒÌ¯¥‘×°‘ ‹Ñ ¸–Ó€î Ã఑™ ‘« ‚› —°ÍÆ×ÏÅ …´±è Ƒ€× ‡òº³. Äòé×°‘, ‹Ñ   ¸–Óñè ½¹°»ò ‡àŽòé …´±è Ƒ€× ‡òº³  

1.2.2 …´±è ‡òºî ‹Ñ ¸–Ó€î Àî±Ö ‡¯¬ À‘œé —°Í¹³—‘è×°í ˆ³×‘ŽÆ êØò  —œÒÚè  ‡òé Ï´³ €¥ Ò ×͍äÖ ‘«¿º¨Žòé³. ‹Ñ ¸ï´° ½Ò×ïò ‚ÝÀ‘î  ¹°€îè Ø㛐Š¸–Ó€î µò鑍 »€ÝÇòê —°Í¹³ —‘¯¨ ‡´°€Æ ¸–Ö ³—×òìÅ  —º‘³×‘  ê¹³ —‘¯¨, ‚þ× ‡¹° ƒî´±Ö þœÑ¹°³ ³ ‡òº€°ÉÅ —°ä¹³ °ò »éþ ¹° ¸–Ó€î  »éϙ …«Ñ´°Ö þׯ¨Å ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. ‚ þº‘°î‘ØÆÖ ³€éÇò ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ …´±è  
þµ‘™¿º¨×€° ƒ› ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ³ ŸþÀÏ´ °Á⠡⎠˜ìÅ ˜íþ鑨 —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ°‘´  —°ÍŽòé³.  

þÀÕÅ ƒ°þ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æ‘°‘ ƒò—î‘Ï Ï´³Å ˜é¿º¨×€°ÉÅ µ‘Å ¹±™þׯ¨Å.  ƒ´°€Æ  …´±€ã Š´°™ ‘ª …´±è ‡òŽòé‘Ñ ‚ÍÆÑ. ƒ±Ö ºÒ Ï´³™è ½€°¹³ Ž¥™Žòéî.  Šòì …´±è ‡òºî ‘ªè „ª¦´°Ï׳ ‚þ× Ï€ã „ª¥´°¹³ ´±Ï€ã™ ¦Æ  …°Ú׳  ‡ò鑎òé³. ƒÜ׀ÇÖ ¸ï´° ½Ò×ò ŠÏ×ò ‚™Žòé ‹Ñ ¸–Ö °òþ° ‹Ñ ‘ªÇ€î  
—‘¯¦Ï™, ‹Ñ £‘î´—°äØ€î —‘¯¦Ï™, ³ ‹Ñ ¸–Ò‘ …Ï—ºíì ¶í,  þ°  ‘ªÇ€î,  £‘î´—°äØ€î »ê—°‘Ï×ò —ºíì ÀŽÝ …°Ú×îþ× …´±è ‡òº°‘Žòé³. Š´° ‘ª —ºíì  ÀŽâ׀°, °ò ×Þ, ¸–Ò‘ÍÆþ …¥òº¨×€° 'ê×´³Ø°Å' ‡òé‘Ö, »í‘Ò´±Ö  þ×°‘¹°´±ò  À‘Ƒב° ´³Ø°´€° Ùâ´±Æ €œ× ´°‘¹°´±ò Ÿ´°‘´€×° Ï´±ò þ°‘í鴀° ƒ›þ  ‘«Ã¦Žòé³.  
‹Ñ ‚ÝÀ‘î ¸–Ö ‡òº³ º¦™´—°‘¥›ŽÆ³Å …¥ò °ò …ª—º‘Ïè —°í—éî Ø㛐׳  Ž€¥Æ‘³. Ƒ³  —°íéî Ø㛐Žòéþ°‘, °ò þÀÖ ‚Ñ×Å —œÖґ³ þº‘Å. ‚ …´±è ºÒ —ºË³ ‚Ý íÅ  þת€€Æ ‡à¿º×ÖÒ ¸–íè íþº‘ò À‘ª¨ —œê¹±Ï™Å ´±Ï€ã ‘ª¦ ¶íÅ Šò鑍  ±âŽòé³. ¸–Ö ‡î¿º¨×³, ƒÌª¨Ï —‘¯¥°‘Å. ½é´³Ï ½€°ÉÏ ‡òé×‘ì ƒÌ¯¨  
…Ï™þ㑨´  þ°‘òê —×俺ª¨ ¶íÅ ³, ½éÚÏØò ×Þ —×亥‘³ ¶íÅ ½€°ÉÏ€× ‘«´°Ï×°‘Å.  

ƒ¹°  ½€°ÉÏ€× ‘«Ã¦Æ‘³ ±€™Å þº‘þ°, °òñè êƑ€À ƒÏè ƒÏ¿º€° íþº‘î‘ŽÆ  ŠÏ×ò  …«ÑŽòé‘ò. ³ —º‘àþ° …´±è ºÒ —ºË³, ´±Ï™Å êƑ€À€Æ¿ þº‘™Žòé‘ò.  ƒÜ×‘ì  þº‘™Å þº‘þ°, ¸–Óí ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ÇϙŽòé ‘ª€Æ, £‘î´—°äØ€î °‘ñÅ  —ºíé×òé‘ò.  
‹Ñ ¸–Óò ½é´³Ï€× þÀÉÅ þº‘—°àÅ êØò—œÒÚè …ÏÀ‘î›è ‡òé‘Ö, °ïò  ½€°Éπ״  þ°¨×³ ÏÀ‘îÀ‘Å. ‚ êØò —œÒڍäÖ, ƒ› ÏÀ‘î›è ‡î¿º¨×îþ× …´±è ‚Å.  

1.2.3 ‡Öґ  …´±€ãÉÅ —º‘³ØÆÖ …´±è ‡òìÅ °ïØÆÖ …´±è ‡òìÅ ˜éґÅ. ƒ¹°´  °ïØÆÖ …´±€ãÉÅ °ò—º‘Ϫ¨´±è ‡òìÅ »éїº‘Ϫ¨´±è ‡òìŠא™Ò‘Å.ƒ×íêÖ  —º‘³ØÆÖ …´±ã‘×î ¸°ÓƳ ê°Ö, ±‘Ì ÀéþÆ, —°‘´³™ ˜éÖ, א´³ —ÀË ¶ì´°Ö  ‡òºîבÅ. ƒ×íêÖ ¸°ÓƳ ê°Ò‘׳, ¸–Ö Šòì °òþ° —‘¯¦Ï™Žòé ‹Ñ ¸±¿»€î  
Ãòîêב¿ —ºíì (preunderstanding) »é ¸–Ó€î Ã఑™ íì ¹° ÃòîêØ€î  —°èãêב™Ž  ¸–Ö ˜é×¹° —º‘Ï€ã ±éź¥  ê¹³—‘è×°‘Å.  ƒ¹° …´± ‡à×°í ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ ƒÏ¿º³,  

º‘ÇÌÅ þº‘òé ¸–ò͗À‘òì, ¸–Ö ˜é×¹°€° —º‘³¿º€¥Æ‘™ ˜ê êØò —œÒØ€î ‹Ñ  ±€œ™è  º¨´³×°‘Å. ƒ°î‘Ö ´þ° ‹Ñ ê¿½ þ°‘òé ¨´°¨´³ —°ÍÆ×ÏŠإƛ€ã ƒ¹°  ê¿þº‘¨  —°‘¥Ñ½ º¨´± —°äב™Ž™ —‘èã æŽòé³. þÀÕÅ ƒ› íþº‘ïò ƒÏ¿½¶€Ò (ways of  Being)  
ê¿½™ ‘ÒÅ (temporality) ºª¥°‘ ±â׀°™ ‘¯. ƒ› ê¿½™ ‘ÒÀ‘׳, ƒòéÖґ  °òïò  ‹Ñ ‡±Ñ¶€Ò€Æ þµ‘™Ž ³ °‘ŠØÏ¿—º‘¨ ¶íÅþº‘³ ‡àŽòé ¹¶€Ò ‘Ò  …«ÑבÅ.  

ƒ°ò ×ÞþÆ°‘ò, ½é´³ ƒÆ™›€ã™ —‘¯¨  …ÒŽÆÖ ‘ÒÀ‘ŽÆ Ÿª¨‘Ò´€° צ™  æŽòé³.  ‹Ñ ¸–Óò ¸±¿½, íº×€î, ×î³ ƒÏ¿½ ¶€ÒÇÓϹ³ —ºÆÑ´³ ‡±Ñ¶€Ò ŠòêÖ À‘ª¦Øª¨,  ê¿½  ‘Ò …«Ñ—ב¨ ±àÀ‘ì —œË³ ‹Ñ þת€º‘íºª¥×ÚÅ ±Í´³Ø¨Žòé³. ¸–Ö ¸°ÓƳ  ‡¿—º‘à³ êבŽòéþ°‘ ³—º‘àþ° ƒ¹° ê¿½‘Ò …«ÑÚÅ ƒÖґ³þº‘Å. ¸±™¿º¨×€°  °‘ò  
ƒòñÅ êƑþ° ƒÏ™Žòþéò ‡òé ׀ÇÖ, ê¿½™‘Ò …«ÑØÖ º¨´³Å ƒ´°€Æ ¸–Ö  ¸±¿½™è  ŠÏ×î³ ´³¢ —œê¹±Ï™Å êƑ€À€Æ, ¤£‘î´€° ‘ª¦ ¶íº€°ÉÅ ‘¯.  

1.2.4 ƒ°þ —°‘¥Ñ½€¥Æþ° ±‘Ì Àé€À ‡ñÅ …´±ã‘Å. ¸°Óƀ° êÆ¿ ½Å þº‘³,  Šòê€î™ íì´ —°ä¹³ °ò »òþîþÆ ƒò—î‘ò€é™ íì ƒÜ×‘ì Šòê€î ¨´³ Šò鑍¿  —ºÆѹ³ æØÖ ¸–Ö ¸°Óƀ°´ —°ä×°‘Å. ×Ìґíì ÀéÇÖ —ºÆÑ׳ ƒ› µ¥™Žòé³.  —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±Ö ƒ¹° ±‘ÌÀé€ÀÇ€î —°äב™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ‡à´°±‘Ì´€°  
½Í¹³—‘¯¥¿  »é —œ‘ÖÒ±‘ÌÅ, °€î¿ ½Í¹³—‘¯¥ »é —º‘Ï㱍‘ÌÅ ‡òé×‘ì ƒ¹¸–Ö ƒÆÕ׀°™  ‘¯.  

—º‘Ï㱍‘Ì´€°¿ ½Í¹³—‘è㠗œ‘ÖÒ±‘Ì´€°™ íì´ þ°Ñ¹±Ï™þׯ¨Å. ƒþ°¿ þº‘òì  —œ‘ÖÒ±‘Ì´€°¿ ½Í¹³ —‘è㠇ര±‘Ì´€° íì —°Í¹±Ï™þׯ¨Å. ‹òê€î™ íì´  þ°ê  ¹±™þ×°‘ò, »ê—°‘òì ‚±Æ‘Žòé³ ‡òº€°É› ‘¯. ‚ ±‘ÌÀé€À ‡òº³ ‹Ñ  
×ÌґíêÆÖ —ºÆÑ¢Æ‘Å.ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ —ºÆÑ¢™ ¦¿º€¥Æ‘ ƒÏ¿º³, ´þ° ¸–Ö ¸°ÓƳ  þ°‘íìؙÅ ê¿½™ ‘Ò …«ÑÚ ‡òº€°É› ‘¯. ƒ¹° êØò —ºÆÑ¢ÉÅ ¹°À‘± ‡òé×‘ì  —œÖ׀°™ ‘¯.   

»í‘Ò´±Ö ¸–íäò ±‘ÌÀé€À €×¿»ò ‚Ëþ×, —Àˍ¯¥‘Ì‘Ö —º‘³×‘™¿ ºª¨ ¹°À‘±  ‡òé ׀ÇÖ ‹Ñ ¦¿º€¥ Ï´°‘™¿ºª¨ €œ× ´°‘¹°Å ºÌ¿º¨Žòé³ ‡òº€° µ‘Å ƒ›  ×  þׯ¨Å. œ›‘Ì ‘̫ ƒÏ™Žòé ðþÒ Ã°Ö ‡òì ˜ê ¿ºÌŗº‘π㠁¹°À‘± ‡òþé  ºÑ׀°™ ‘¯. ×£‘îþº‘°Å Ã°í ¡´±Ì´±þÒþÆ ƒ™Ï´³ ×ώòé³:  

×ò ×è ³ ‡ñÅ €×   
þ°‘íêÆ ±±þÆ Š¨›ŽÀÒ´³ …ã°‘Å   
¹°À‘± ‡òÀî‘Ñ ½Ò×Ñ   

1.2.5 ƒ×íꙐ þ×鑍 ƒÏ¿ºîþ× —°‘´³™ ˜éÖ, א´³ —ÀË ¶ì´°Ö ‡òºî.  ƒ€× ×Æ×Å  ×ÆØ ‡òéבì, ‹Ñ ¸–Ó€î ‘®Åþº‘³ ‡àŽòé …´±ã‘Å. °ï´°ïƑ ‘«¿º¨×í€é, ‹Ñ  €À¿»ò ¦¿º€¥ÇÖ Ã఑™ ‘®Åþº‘³ (gestaltic perception)  ‡àŽòéþ° ‹Ñ —°‘¿½  ÖÒ³ ÃàŸ ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ —°‘¿»ò …쿽™ã‘ €À×î×í€é —×Üþ×鑍  
°ï´³™  ‘ª¥þÒ ×´³ —ÀË ¶ì´°Ö ‡ñÅ …´±Æ‘Å. ‘ª¥‘ ‹Ñ ÀÌÅ ‡òº³ ºÒ×íêò —°‘¿º‘Å. 
Ã఑™ ¯¨ ÀŽàŗº‘àþ° °ò ƒÆÖ½ ƒòî—°î™ ‘«×ώòé³, —ºÆͪ¨ €Ý™ÚÅ  æŽòé³. Ü×‘ì °€î¿ º‘Ñ´³™ —‘¯þ¥ ‚îÖ °€î »ò½ÒÅ °èä …ì¿½™ã‘  Ø㛐×î×í€é Ãí½Òò —‘¯¨×¹³ º‘Ñ™Åþº‘þ° ƒ³ þ×Ñ, ƒ³ Ž€ã ‡ò—éÖґŠ×ÏÅ  …ì¿»ÆÖ  êÚ …«ÑבŽòé³. ƒ› »í½Ò êב ÀÌÅ ƒÖ€Ò—ÆïÖ, Ãí½Ò êב Ž€ã þ×Ñ þº‘òé  Ï´³™è ‡Ý‘³þº‘Å ‡òº€°™ ‘¯.  

ƒ¿º¦¿ºª¥ êØò —œÒڍäÖ ‘ÒÚ«ÑÚ ƒÖ€Ò ‡îº€°ÉÅ ‘¯. —°‘±™¢ —œòì  º±™¢  —œÖ׳ Ãí½Ò´³ (foreground) Šò€é »í½ÒÀ‘™Ž (background) º‘Ñ™¿º¨×€° À‘íì×°‘Å, ‚  º‘Ñ€×€Æ À‘íì×°‘Å. ƒ™Ï´³ —°‘֍‘¿»ÆÅ ‘Ò¹ —°‘¥›Ž, °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇÖ ‹Ñ ×Õ×‘î  ƒ¥´€° »¦´³™—‘¯¥€°ÉÅ  ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.  »í‘Ò´±Ö ±ÏÄÒÍò ±ÏÀ¹±Ì´±Ö ƒ¹°  
½Ò¿—ºÆÑ¢ Ï´³™è ºÒ º‘¥ÖäÖ Ø㙍¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ‘ª¥‘¢ Ò:  

ÀÌ´€° À€é´°³ À‘À° Ƒ€î   
ÀÌ´±ò À€é¹°³ À‘À° Ƒ€î   
ºÌ´€° À€é´°³ º‘ÑÃ°í ¾°Å   
ºÌ´±ò À€é¹°³ º‘ÑÃ°í ¾°þÀ   

ÀÌ´°‘Ò‘ŽÆ —º‘Å€À Ƒ€î€Æ º‘Ñ™Åþº‘³, À̙ª€¥€Æ Ãí½ÒÀ‘™ŽØª¥‘Ö, Ƒ€î  »í½ÒÀ‘Ž  —°òº¥‘³ þº‘Žòé³; Ƒ€î€Æ Ãí½ÒŽØª¥‘Ö, ÀÌÅ »í½ÒÀ‘Ž ¯¬í —°òº¥‘³  þº‘Žòé³.  ƒþ°¿ þº‘Ò —º‘ê½Ò™ ‘ª™ …Ò€ ‚™Žî‘Ö, ºÌ‘ºÌò —°òº¥‘³ þº‘Žòé‘ò. °€î™  Ýòì  ‚Ý™‘ªÇò …ҍ´€° »í½ÒÀ‘™ŽØ¥, …ҍŠþ°‘ò鑳 ØÝ, ƒ€é×ò ‘«×ώòé‘ò  ‡òºþ°  ƒ°ò —º‘Ï㑐Å.  

—º‘ò€î À€é´°³ —º‘òî¬ ¾¥«Å  
—º‘òïò À€é¹°³ —º‘òî¬ ¾¥«Å  
°ò€î À€é´°³ °òÌ «›ã‘Å  
°òïò À€é¹°³ °òÌ «›þã  

—º‘òî¬Æ‘ …Ï¿—ºíêϙŽòé Šòê€î °ïò ¬Æ‘Å °ò€À€Æ Ãí½Ò¿º¨´±™ ¯¨  ÀŽàÅþº‘³,  °ò ÄÒÀ‘ ƒÏ™Å —º‘ò€î »í½Ò¿º¨´± بװ‘Ö º‘Ñ€×™ ‚‘³ þº‘Žòé³. —º‘òï€î  Ãí½Ò¿º¨´± ت¥‘þґ, ¬ÆêÚ »í½ÒÀ‘™¿ºª¨ º‘Ñ€×ÇÓϹ³ À€éŽòé³. þ°¿  þº‘Ò´°‘ò,  
ºŸÌ«›ã‘ŽÆ ‰Å—º‘êã‘Ö ‚Å ê؀î Ãí½Ò¿º¨´± ÀŽâ¹°‘Ö, °ò€î¿ ºíê  —œ‘к×êÚ  ‘«×̑³ þº‘Žòé³. þ°¿ þº‘Ò ƒ¿ºŸÌ« …«Ñڍ€ã °×´°‘Ö »í½Ò¿º¨´± ت¥‘Ö,  °í—œ‘к  êÚ Ø㛎 ¶í …ҍŠ‘«×‘Ì‘—°‘ÞŽòé³.  

»í‘Ò´±Ö, ½Òò×Þ¿ º‘Ñ€× ‡ñÅ Ï´€° »€ÝƑ …«Ñ¹³—‘¯¨ ‚± œ›ÌÑ þº‘òþé‘Ñ  À‘Æב°  ´³Ø°Å ˜ê, …ҍ´€° —º‘ËƑ™ŽîÑ. ƒòéãÚ ±ÏÄÒÍò ƒ´°€Æ º‘¥Ö€ã À‘Ƒב°  ´³Ø°´±í œ‘ò鑍 ºÒÑ ‚¨×³Å þ×°€î™ÍÆ Šòþé.  
1.2.6 ƒï ¨´°°‘ ×Ï×î °ò—º‘Ϫ¨´±è ‡î™ ˜é×Ϻ€×ƑÅ. ¸–Ö ¸°Óƀ° êÆ¿  ½×‘ò  þׯ¦ °€î™ íì ¹±´³ —°äÉÅ þº‘³ ˆíº¨Žòé êØò —œÒڍþ㠃¿º¦¿ºª¥  …´±ã‘Å.  '—À‘Þ¹° —º‘Ïþ㑨 Šòé Ü×Çò —À‘ÞƑ°°€î ê¦òê æ´°Ö', 'ב̑°°î‘Ö ×¹°³  æ´°Ö',  ×¹°³ —‘¯¨ ב̑°³ …«Ñ°Ö', 'ƒé¹°³ ‘´°Ö', '‡±Ì³ þº‘íéÖ', ºÖ—º‘Ϫ ˆí»ò µÖÒ³  
þ‘¥Ö', '…Ë´³™—‘¯¨ …«Ñ´°Ö' ‡òºî þº‘òé€× íþº‘ò ŠÏ×ò °‘þî …€Ý´³ ¸–Óî‘Ö  ¸×Ò¿º¨×€° »€ÝÇòê …«Ñ¹³ —‘è×°‘Å. ‡¤Æ×í€é »éїº‘Ϫ¨´±ã‘™  —‘èãґÅ.  

'Š¿º™ ˜éÖ', 'ŠÏ°€Ò —À‘Þ', '°òþ‘è ˜éÖ', '»éò …¥òºª¥³ °‘ò …¥Å º¥Ö', 'À찀Ҡ €°´³´ °¹³¬½ …€Ì´°Ö', '‚€« ˜éÖ' þº‘òéÚÅ »éÚÅ ‹Ñ ¸–Ó€î ‡¨´³ þº‘±™Žòé  þº‘³Å »éþ̑¨  »éþ̑¨ °ò —º‘π㿠ºíê °Ñ™Ž™Žòé —º‘à³Å ‡àŽòé êØò —œÒڍ㑍¿ º¨Žòéî.  ƒ×íêÖ  Ò »í‘Ò´±Ö א´³™ ‘ª¥¿ºª¥ ã€×è Ò×íþ鑨 Š´±Ï¿º€°™ ‘¯.  ƒ×íêò ØÍבî Ø㙍›€ã ¦þÆî³ "Literary Hermeneutics in Dravidian Linguistic Tradition"  
‡òé ‚›ŽÒ™ ª¨€ÌÇÖ ¯¨—‘è.  

°ÁÝ —ÀËÆêÚ ×ÌґíêÖ ‹Ñ €ÀÆ ƒ¥´€° »¦´³èã …´± ‚ËÚ —ºÏź‘ÕÅ ƒÒ™«¿  ½Ò×эã‘þÒþÆ  —œËÆ¿ºª¥°‘ÚÅ —°ÍŽòé³. »í‘Ò´±Ö  ºï̯¥‘Å ¸–í鑯¨ µòñ–ÓÕÅ, º±î‘é‘Å  ¸–í鑯¨  À‘éîқ‘ÌÅ ‡ñÅ Á ØÍ×‘î ¬ÇÆÖ ¸–ÓÕÅ ƒÜב̑ˢ —°‘¥Ñ׀°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.  

3.0 ƒÒ™«¿ ½Ò×эäò ¸–Õ´±  

1.3.1 —°‘֍‘¿»Æ´±í ¨´° ¶€ÒÇÖ ½Ò×эã‘Ö —ºÍ³Å þº‘í鿺¨Å µòñ–ÓÖ —°‘֍‘¿»Æ  ‘Ò´±í¿ »ò—î๰ ƒ´°€Æ ‚Ëڍäò —°‘¿€º™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. ƒ×íêÖ ¸–Õ´±è 32  ‡î¿º¦ñÅ, ½±Æ°‘ Ò þœÑ™ºª¨è〰ÉÅ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. þÀÕÅ ƒ€× ã€×ÇÆÖ ‚ËØò  
°‘™´±í ‚ã‘ŽÇÏ¿º€°ÉÅ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å ,' ¸°Ó¿ ½°Ö ‹´³Ã€é €×¿þº' ‡òì ÀÌ»ÆÖ  ¡´±Ì´€° °àØþÆ —œÖÕÅ ƒ¹—µ¦Æ ¡´±Ì´±Ö ½±Æב¢ Ò:  —œ‘í—º‘Ïè ØÍ´°Ö,  —°‘¥Ñ¢—œ‘í  ½«Ñ´°Ö, ˆ³Øò æ´°Ö, Øíº´±ò æ´°Ö , ‡¨´³™‘ª¥Ö, ‡¨´° —À‘ÞÇò ‡Ëƀ״°Ö  ‡òºî ã€×ÇÆÓò €Ò¢—œ‘퍀㠜‘ѹ±Ï¿º€°™ ‘¯. þÀÕÅ »éїº‘Ϫ¨´±€ã  À°Å  
‡òì  µØòì ×í€é ˆÝ‘ÚÅ ‘¯ŽòéîÑ.  

‡à׀ À°þÀ …¥òº¥Ö Àì´°Ö  
»éÑ°Å À°þÀí —‘¯¨ €ãþ×  
°‘  ¦´ °î‘³ ¶ì¿þº  
ƒÏ×Ñ À‘ìþ‘‹Ö ŠÏ°€Ò ³¬þ×  
»éѸ–í íé› ‘ª¥Ö ˆ€î¿  
»ê—°‘¨ º¥‘ò °òÀ°› —‘ãþÒ  
   (µòñ–Ö 11)  

‡òé×‘ì °ïþÆ‘Ñ ¡´±ÌÀ‘þ× Æ‘™¿ºª¨è〰™ ‘¯.  

þÀÕÅ …´± ‡òé‘Ö ‡òî ‡òº±ò ¯®Å ‚Ì‘Ë¢ —œòìè〰™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å.  

¸–í—º‘Ïè ×ݙ—‘¨ ב˿º™ ‘ª¦  
ˆí½Þ ê¹³ ƒ°í ƒÜ׀ Ƒ—Àî´  
°Å ׀  —œÕ´°Ö °¹±Ì Ú´±  
‡òé×‘ì ¸–Õ´± Ø㙍¿º¨Žòé³. °ÁÞò '¸–Ö' ‡ñÅ —œ‘Ö ƒ› ×¥—À‘Þº¨´°¿ºª¨ °¹±ÌÅ  ‡î¿º¨Žòé³. êØ€î °™×‘ì —œÕ´±, ¸–í—º‘Ï€ã ×ݙ—‘¨ Š¿»ª¨ »€ÝÆé  …«Ì´°Ï×þ°  ƒ› ¸–Õ´± ‡î¿º¨×€°™ ‘¯.  

1.3.2 ƒï ±ÏÀ‘Ö ×Þ¿º‘ª¦Ö é¹³ Øã›ŽÆ º±î‘é‘Å ¸–í鑯¨  ±ÏÏ€¿ —ºÏÀ‘è  Ø̑ÆÑ  Ƒ´° À‘éîқ‘ÌÅ ‡ñÅ Á¢ é¿º‘î ¬ÇÆÖ ¸–ÓÖ, ¸–Õ´±€ã¿ ºíê ½³€ÀÆ‘î ºÒ  Ï´³™è ‡à¹³è〰™ ‘«Ã¦Žòé³. ƒ×íêí ØÌ´µØ̑ÆÑ ‡òº‘Ñ ØÏ´±…€Ì þº‘òì  Á¢ é¿º‘î ‹Ñ …€Ì€ÆÉŠƑ´³èã‘Ñ. ‚ÇñÅ ×¥—À‘Þ°‘™±í  ‚ã‘Ž »€ÝÆ‘î ºÒ  Ï´³™€ãÉÅ ºÑ׀°™ ‘¯Žòþé‘Å. º±î‘é‘Å ñ–í鑯¨ —°‘¥›Ž, °ÁÝ¢ ¹°€îÇò  ‡Öґ  ƒ¥›äÕÅ ƒ¹° Ù⢝€Æ™ ‘« æŽòé³. …´± ‡òº€° ə± ‡ñÅ ×¥—À‘Þ¢ —œ‘ÖÓò  €°Ú  ‡òì ˜ê °€î ¡´±Ì´±òº‘í Ž¥¿ºþ°‘Ñ —º‘Ïèþ×캑¨ ‘ª¨×³ ‡òì ˜ê™—‘è×þ°‘¨  ¶ì´±™  —‘èŽòé‘Ñ.  ÀÌ»ÆÖ ¡´±ÌÅ Á¢ é¿º‘ 'Š´°™ ‘ª …´±×€ ØÍ¿»ò' ‡òì —°‘¥›,  ƒ›þ‘ ' …èæì´³ €À´° …´± ׀ ØÍ¿»ò ' ‡òì —°‘¥›Žòé³. '¸°ÓƳ ê°Ö' ‡òº€°  
'…èäƳ …«Ñ´°Ö' ‡òŽòé‘Ñ. ¸–Ö ¸°Ö׳ ƒ› ¸–Ò‘ÍÆò Ï±Æþ°‘¨ Šò鑙¿º¨Žòé³.  þÀÕÅ …èæì´³ €À´° …´± ‡ñÅ —º‘à³, ‹Ñ ¸–€Ò Ýº¥ Ƒ™ þׯ¦Æ €À¿»ÆÖ  Šà›ŽÆÖ  ¬×€ Àé€À ‡òºîþº‘òé êØò —°‘Þ֍€ãþÆ é¿º‘ ¹±™Žòé‘Ñ ‡òìÅ  —°ÍŽòé³.  

×̀œ¿º¨´³Å …´±è ÀÌ»ÆÓÖ ºÇÖ×îþ× Æ‘Å. Šòì ½±°‘¿ º¨Žòé³: '…Ìò …€¥Æîב˴  ²º×€Æ‘Ñ é¿½™ ˜éÖ' ‡òºþ° ³. ¬ÇÆÖ ‚ËØò °‘™´°‘Ö ƒ¿½³€À ‡òìÅ  —°ÍŽòé³.  

ƒ°í Ø̑ÆÍò …€ÌƑ׳: 
«¹ —°‘ÞÖ œ‘± —º‘Ïè ‡òñ µ‘òñè Šò€é™ ê´°—בϠ —œ‘Ö  
—œËÉ䥴³ Ã°Ö ƒ€¥ €¥ ‡òñÅ Äòꥴ±ñè ‹Í¥´°‘Ž ‚±Çïòé³ ¹°´³ ãÚÅ  ‹¥ÚÅ,  ƒ€¥ ¶òé³ ÃòñÅ »òñÅ ‹¥ÚÅ, ƒì± ¶òé³ ƒ€¥ÉŠðÕÅ ‹¥ÚÅ Øò—ºé™ ˜ì°Ö  ‡òŽòé‘Ñ.  

1.3.3 º±î‘é‘Å ¸–í鑯¦í¿ »é, ƒÒ™«Ø㙍Š‡à±Æ €×±Æµ‘° þ°ÏÅ,  
º´—°‘òº°‘׳  ¸–í鑯¦Ö ‰¹³ ƒÒ™«›€ã µØòé ô³ÙÍÆ …º‘´±Æ‘ÏÅ …´±€Æ¿ ºíêÆ ‚ËØ€î  —°‘¥‘̳  þº‘ŽòéîÑ. —ºÍ³Å þº‘í鿺¨×°‘ Ƒ¿º±‘ÌÃÅ ¬Æ±‘ÌÃþÀ Ø㛐Žòéî. ƒ€×ÉÅ  ×¥—À‘Þ  ƒÒ™ŽÆ ƒÒ™« ÀÌ»ò °‘™´°‘Ö ˆíºª¥€× ‡òìÅ —°ÍŽòé³. ÄÒ ¸–퍀㙠¯¨ —°ä.  

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